only condition that gives pain and bleeding in gi?
rx for perforation
rx for choangitis due to stones?
next step with cancer in the liver?
ct to see extent of tumor
hepatic adenoma are caused by?
next step when suspecting?
all absecesses are drained except which one?
obstructive jaundice, next step in management?
best initial step for volvulus?
rx for gallbladder pancreatitis?
conservative if doesnt respond, ercp
rx for asymptomatic gallstones?
rx for cholecystitis?
conservative and the cholecystectomy
do you do cholecystetcomy for cholangitis?
gallblasddr stones cauing any kind of inflammation, must be treated and is cholecystectomy done?
when do you drain a pancreatic pseudocyst?
- if its larger than 6 cm
- if its been there for longer than 6 months
when do umbilical hernias close?
by 2 years of age
rx of hernias in adults?
rx for a newly irreducible hernia
most accurate test for breast cancer?
tumor in a young woman?
cause of fluid discharge from a nipple?
rx for cancer in a pregnant woman?
- no chemo in 1st trimester
- no radiation at all during pregnancy
best iniitla test for suspecting breast cancer?
how do you proceed with cancers that are operable?
surgery then chemo and hormonal therapy
inoperable--chemo and hormone therapy then surgery
how are cancers operated on in a large breast where the cancer is far from the nipple?
in a small breast with the tumor near the nipple?
what hormones are given post mastectomy if a woman is premenapausal?
what is anostrozole?
aromatase inhibitor used in breast cancer in postmenapausal women
most accurate test for ze?
- high gastrin levels with secretin given
- high gastrin level with gasric acidity
test to exclude metastasis in ze?
somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with endoscopic ultrasound
how is local disease of ze treated?
gastrinoma--recurrent peptic ulcers
glucagonoma--migratory necrotizing dermatitis + hyperglycemia
management of a person with dyspepsia who is under 45?over 45?
- under 45--empiric PPI or h pylori serology
- over 45--scope them
when do you suspect ze?
ulcers are large, multiple, in distal duodenum, recurrent after h pylori eradication
how do you detect the location of pheo? if it is outside the adrenals?
excessive salivation and coiling of the ng tube in the esophagus?
esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula
rx for meconium ileus?
causes of double bubble sign?
- duodenal atresia
- annular pancreas
dx and rx for intussusspetion?
trouble with swallowing and breathing in (stridor)?
when do you anticoagulate for valvular af?
all meaning rheumatic heart valves, prosthetic heart valves, repaired heart valves
best initial test for asd?
which one presents earlier, tof or togv?
how much fev1 needs to be left after lung surgery for cancer?
fev1 = 800mL
way to monitor instantaneous blood pressure if a pt is on a pressor?
6 types of transfusion reactions?
- febrile nonhemolytic-tylenol
- acute hemolytic-abo incompatibility
- delayed hemolytic--rh incompatibility
- anaphylactic-epinephrine, intubation, fluids
- urticarial-- benadryl
next step in management
1-pelvic fracture + DPL showing blood i pelvis?
2-pelvic fracture + DPL shows urine in pelvis?
3-pelvic fracture+ DPL shows nothing +hemo instability?
4-blunt abdo trauma + FAST shows fluid in pelvis and unstable vital signs?
5-blunt abdo trauma + fast shows no fluid + unstable vital signs?
6-blunt abdo trauma + unstable vital signs + fast inconclusive?
7-Blunt abdo trauma + stable vital sign?
8-Abdo stab wound + hypotensive or signs of peritonitis?
- 1-emergency laparotomy
- 2-urgent laparotomy
- 3-angiogroaphy for retroperitoneal hemorrhage
- 4-urgen laparatomy
- 5-angiography for retropeiro
- 7-ct of abdo and pelvis
- 8-emergency laparotomy