1. Science and Culutre in an Age of Realism: Intro
    a.      Between 1850 and 1870, two major intellectual developments: the growth of scientific knowledge and the shift from Romanticism and its focus on the inner world of reality to Realism and its turning toward the outer, material world
  2. A New Age o Science
    • a.      Science was impacting life
    •                                                               i.      Scientific Revolution transformed the Western worldview and led to modern, rational approach to studying the national world
    • 1.      Even in 18th century, however, these intellectual developments had remained the preserve of an educated elite and resulted in few practical benefits 
  3. Technical Advances
    • 1.      Moreover, the technical advances of the early Industrial Revolution had depended little on pure science and much more on the practical experiments of technologically oriented amateur inventors
    • Advances in industrial technology fed an interest in basic scientific research which resulted in a rash of basic scientific discoveries that were soo converted into 
  4. Development of steam engine
    • a.      Development of steam engine was important in encouraging scientists to work out its theoretical foundations, which led to thermodynamics, whose laws were core of physics (19th)
    • b.      In biology, the Frenchman Louis Pasteur created germ theory of diseaseà impacted scientific medical practices
  5. Chemistry
    • a.      chemistry, Russian Dmitri Mendeleyev classified all material elements based on atomic weights and provided systematic foundation for the periodc law
    • b.      Englishman Michael Faraday discovered the phenomenon on electromagnetic induction and put together a primitive generator that laid the foundation for the use of electricity, although economically efficient generators were not built until the 1870s
  6. Increasing material gains
    • a.      Increasing material gains generated by science and technologyà growing faith in benefits of science
    •                                                               i.      Popularity of scientific and technological achievement produced a widespread acceptance of the scientific method, based on observing, experiment, and logical analysis, as the only path to objective truth and objective reality
    • 1.      This in turn undermined the faith of many people in religious revelation and truth
  7. 19th century
    • a.      19th century: age of increasing secularization, particularly evident in growth of materialism, the belief that everything mental, spiritual, or ideal was simply a result of physical forces
    •                                                               i.      Truth found in concrete material existence of human beings and not, as Romantics imagined, in revelations gained by feeling or intuitive flashes
  8. Importance of materialism
    • 1.      Importance of materialism was strikingly evident in the most important scientific event of the 19th century, the development of the theory of organic evolution according to natural selection
    • a.      On the theories of Charles Darwin could be built a picture of humans as material beings that were psimply part of natural world
  9. III. Charles Darwin and the Theory of Organic Evolution
    • a.      Charles Darwin= scientific amateur
    •                                                               i.      Upper-middle=class family who studied theology at Cmabridge and interested in geology and iology
    •                                                             ii.      1831: age of 22, his hobby became his vocation when he accepted an appointment as a naturalist to study animals and plants on an official Royal Navy scientific expeidiotn aboard the HMS Beagle
    • 1.      Purpose: to survey and study the landmasses of S> America and S. Pacific
  10. Specific Job
    •                                                               i.      Specific job was to study the structure of various forms of plant and animal life
    • 1.      He was able to observe animals on islands untouched and compare them with mainland animals à discarded notion of special creation and believed in evolution due to environment
    •                                                               i.      Returned to Britainà theory of natural selection in ON the Origin of Species by Means of Natual Selection
  11. Basic Idea of Book
    •                                                               i.      All plants and animals evolted from simpler forms= organic evolution
    • 1.      Natural process:
    • a.      First step taken from Thomas Malthus’s theory of population: in every species, many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive
    • Results in struggle for existence
  12. Darwin believed
                                                                  i.      Darwin believed that more individuals that can survive results in struggle for existence with either same or distinct species, or with physical conditions of lifeà adaptations made possible by variants
  13. Chance variations
    • 1.      Chance variations that occurred in the process of inheritance enabled some organisms to be more adaptable to the environment htan others, called natural selection
    • a.      Those naturally selected for survival survived (survival of the fittest)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Unfit= extinct
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Fit propagated and passed on variations that enabled survival until new species emereed
  14. On the Origin of Species
    •                                                               i.      In ON the Origin of Species, he discussed only plant and animal species
    • 1.      Not concerned with humans until later with Descent of Man: men descended from other mammals
  15. Controversial Ideas
    •                                                               i.      Some: his theory made humans products of nature rather than unique beings
    •                                                             ii.      Otehrs: disturbed by implications of life as struggle for survival 
  16. For thsoe who believed...
    •                                                               i.      For those who believed in a rational order in the world, Darwin’s theory seemed ot eliminate purpose and design from the universe, but the theory was still accepted by scientists and other intellectuals
    •                                                             ii.      Some tried to apply ideas to society
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