1. I.                   The United States: Slavery and War
    • a.      Mid-19th: American national unity threatened by slavery
    •                                                               i.      Both N and S grew in population with different development
    • 1.      Cotton econmy and social structure of South based on exploiting enslaved black Africans and descendants
    • a.      1810: 178k bales of cotton= $10 milà 1860: 4.5 mil bales= $249 mil
  2. 93% of cotton produced by slaves
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      93% of cotton produced by slaves
    • 1.      4 million Afro-American slaves in 1860
    • a.      Cotton and slavery relatedà South defensive about keeping themà rise of abolitionist mvovemtn in North that challenge dthe southern orderà civil war
  3. 1850s
    • a.      1850s: slavery caused Whi Party to become defunct and Democrats to split along N-S lines
    •                                                               i.      The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which allowed slavery in the Kansas and Nebraska territories to be determined by popular sovereignty, created a firestorm in the northà creation of a new sectional party
    • 1.      Republicans united by anti-slavery principles and driven by fear tha t”slave power” of south would attempt to spread the slae system throughout the country
  4. Compromise
    • a.      Compromise not reachedà Abraham Lincoln electedà the die was cast
    •                                                               i.      Lincoln carried only 2/ 1109 counties in South; the Reublicans weren’t even on ballot in 10 southern states
    •                                                             ii.      December 20, 1860, A SC convention voted to repeal the state’s ratification of the US Constitutionà 6 more southern states did sameà Confederate States of Americaà April= n. vs. s.
  5. Civil War
    •                                                               i.      Bloody struggle with more than 600k soldiers dead
    •                                                             ii.      Over 4 years, the Union states of the North mobilized their superior assets and wore down Confederate forces of the South
    •                                                           iii.      War had effect of radicalizing public opinion in the north
  6. War to save union--> war against slavery
    • 1.      Jan 1, 1863: Emancipation Proclamaiton made most of nation’s slaves free
    • a.      Effective Union blockade of South, combined with shortage of fighting men, made Confederates desperate by end of 1864
  7. Final Push
                                                                  i.      Final push of Union troops under General U. S. Grant forced G. R. E. Lee’s Confederate Army to surrender on Apr 9, 1865
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