1. I.                   Great Britain: The Victorian Age
    • a.      Britain wasn’t troubled by revolutionary disturbances
    • Reform Act of 1832 allowed political representation for industrial middle calss, and in 1860s, Britain’s liberal parliamentary system demonstrated its ability to make both social and political reforms that enabled the country to be remain stable and prosperous
  2. Reasons for Stability
    •                                                               i.      Continuing economic growth
    • 1.      Middle class prosperity coupled with improving working class
    • a.      Real wages for laborers increased more than 25% (‘50-‘70)
    • 2.      British feeling of national pride reflected in Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
    • a.      Her sense of duty and moral respectability reflected attitudes of her age
  3. Victorian Age
                                                                  i.      Politically an era of uneasy stability as aristocratic and upper-middle-class reps who dominated Parliament blurred party lines by their internal strife and shifting positions
  4. Henry John Temple, Lord Palmerston
    • 1.      Prime minister who, although a Whig, was w/o strong party loyalty and made poltical compromises
    • 2.      Not a reformer and opposed expanding the franchise
  5. a.      Disraeli and the Reform Act of 1867
    •                                                               i.      After Palmerston’s death in 1865, the movement for the extension of the franchise increased
    • 1.      Although Whigs (now called Liberals), who were responsible for Reform Act of 1832, taked about passing additional reform legislation, it was the Tories (now called Conservatives) who carried it through
    • a.      The Tory Leader in Parliament, Benjamin Disraeli, was motivated by desire to win over newly enfranchised groups to the Conserative Party
  6. Reform Act of 1867
    •                                                               i.      The Reform Act of 1867 was an important step toward the democratization of Britain
    • 1.      By lowering monetary requirements for voting, it enfranchised many male urban workers (1à2 million)
  7. Industrial workers
    •                                                               i.      Although Disraeli believed this would benefit Conservatives, industrial workers helped produce a huge Liberal victory in 1868
    •                                                             ii.      The extension of the right to vote had important byproduct as it forced the Liberal and Conservative Parties to organize carefully in order to maniupualte the electorate
  8. Party disciplined
    • 1.      Party discipline intensified, and the rivalry between Liberals and Conservatives was common in parliamentary
    • a.      This was due to personal and political opposition of the two leaders of these parties, Disraeli and Willam Gladstone
  9. e. The Liberal Policies of Gladstone
    • 1.      First Liberal administration of him was responsible for series of reforms
    • Legislation and government orders opened civil service positions to competitive exams rather than patronage, introdouced the secret ballot for voting, and abolished the practice of purchasing military commissions
  10. e. The Liberal Policies of Gladstone

    Education Act of 1870
    •                                                               i.      Education Act of 1870 attempted to make elementary schools available for all kids
    • 1.      These reforms were liberal
    • a.      By eliminating abuses and enabling people with talent to compete fairly, they tried to strengthen the nation and its institutions
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