1. Nation Building and Reform: The National State in Midcentury:
    Other states, besides, Italy and Germany, were undergoing changes through war, civil war, and changes in politics.
  2. I.                   The Austrian Empire: Toward a Dual Monarchy
    • a.      After the Habsburgs crushed the revolutions of ’48-’49, they restored centralized, autocratic government to empire
    •                                                               i.      Only lasting result was act of emancipation of Sept 7, 1848 that freed the serfs and eliminated all compulsory labor services
    •                                                             ii.      Still, the development of industrialization after 1850 brought economic and social change to empire in form of urban proletariat, labor unrest, and a new industrial middle class
  3. 1851
    • a.      1851: Revolutionary constitutions were abolished, and a system of centralized autocracy was imposed on empire
    •                                                               i.      Under Alexander von Bach, local privileges were subordinated to unified system of administration, law and taxation implemented by German-speaking officials
    •                                                             ii.      Hungary was subject to rule of military officers, and the Catholic Church was declared state church and controlled education
  4. Economic troubles
    • a.      Economic troubles and waràchange
    •                                                               i.      After Austria’s defeat in Italian war, the Emperor Francis Joseph tried to create an imperial parliament—the Reichsrat—with a nominated upper house and an elected lower house of representatives
    • 1.      Although it was supposed to provide representation for the nationalities of the empire, the formula used for elelctions ensured the election of a German-speaking majority and excluded other minorities, esp. the Hungarians
  5. a.      The Ausgleich of 1867
    •                                                               i.      Austro-Prussian Warà Austrians deal with nationalistic Hungariansà negotiated Ausgleich, or Compromise, of 1867
    • 1.      Created Dual Monarchy of Austria- Hungary, with each part of empire having own constitution, bicameral legislature, governmental machinery for domestic affairs, and own capital (Buda[pest] for Hu. And Vienna for Aus.)
  6. Single monarch
    • 1.      Holding two states together were a single monarch (Francis Joseph) and a common army, foreign policy, and system of finances
    • a.      In domestic affairs, the Hungarians were independent
    •                                                             ii.      It didn’t satisfy other nationalities in the emprie
    • 1.      Dual Monarchy just allowed German-speaking Austrians and Hungarian Magyars to dominate minorities, especially Slavs
    • a.      Nationalist problem persisted until end of WWI
Card Set