1. War
    •                                                               i.      = turning point in Prussian domestic affairs
    • 1.      After war, Bismarck wanted parliament to pass bill of indemnity, retroactively legalizing taxes he collected illegally
    • a.      Most liberals said yes because won over by Bismarck’s successful military 
  2. Victory over Austria
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      With victory over Austria and creation of north German Confederation, he proved that nationalism and authoritarian government could be combined
    • 1.      By using nationalism to win liberal support and prevent governmental reform, he showed that liberalism and nationalism could be separated
  3. North German COnfederation
    • a.      He also showed same flexibility in creation of new constitution for North German Confederation
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Each German state kept own local government, but king of Prussia was head of confederation, and chancellor (Bismarck) responsible to king
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Both army and foreign policy in hands of king and chancellor
  4. Parliament's Two Bodies
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Parliament had two bodies: BUdesrat (federal council) composed of delegates nominated by states, and a lower house, the Reichstag, elected by universal male suffrage
    • 1.      Like Napoleon, Bismarck believed peasants and artisans of majority were conservative at heart and could help overcome liberal advantages
  5. Franco Prussian War (1870-1871)
    •                                                               i.      Bismarck and William I achieved major goal by ‘66
    • 1.      Prussia now dominated all of n. Germany, and Austria was excluded from German affairs
    •                                                             ii.      Unsettled businessà change and problems
    • 1.      Bismarck realized that France would never be content with a strong German state to its east because of potential threat to French security
  6. Napoleon III
    • 1.      At the same time, after a series of setbacks, Napoleon III needed a diplomatic triumph to offset his serious domestic problems
    • a.      French weren’t happy with events in Germany and wanted to embarrass Prussians
    •                                                             ii.      Successful revolution deposed Queen Isabella IIà throne of Spain offered to Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
  7. Bismarck and Leo
    • 1.      Bsmarck wanted this because if Leo were placed on throne of Spain, France would be surrounded by members of the Hohenzollern dynasty
    • a.      French objections caused King William I to force his relative to withdraw his candidacyà Bismarck upset but French overreached
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Not content with their diplomatic victory, they pushed William I to apologize to France and never allow Leopold to be candidate again
  8. Telegram
    • 1.      When Bismarck received the telegram from the king informing him of te French request, Bismarck edited it to make it appear even more insulting to French
    • a.      French declared war on Prussia
    •                                                             ii.      French were no match for organized Prussians
    • 1.      S. German states honored their military alliances with Prussia and joined war effort against the French
  9. Pruusian armies
    • 1.      Prussian armies advanced into France, and at Sedan, an entire French army and Napoleon III were capturedà collapse of Second French Empire but not war
    • a.      After 4 months of resistence, Paris capitulatied on Jan 28, 1871 and signed a peace treaty
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      France paid indemnity of 5 billion francs and gave up Alsace and Lorraine to new German state
  10. S. Germana states
    •                                                               i.      Confederation
    • 1.      In Hall of Mirrors in Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles, William I, with Bsimarck, was named emperor of the Second German empire
    • German unity achieved by Prussian monarchy/ army
  11. Germany had merged into Prussia
    1.      Prussian leadership of German unification meant triumph of authoritarian, militaristic values over liberal, constitutional sentiments in development of new German state= strongest power on Continent
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