Hist 251 Final

  1. Albany Plan
    • 1754
    • Drafted by Benjamin Franklin at outbreak of 7 years war, envisioned creation of Grand Council composed of delegates from each colony w/power to levy taxes and deal with Indian relations and the common defense
  2. Stamp Act Congress
    • 1765
    • 27 delegates from 9 colonies met in New York to endorse Virginia’s opinion (same rights as british). Insisted that the right to consent to taxation was “essential to the freedom of a people”. Lead to boycott of British goods until stamp act was gone. First cooperative action among colonies
  3. Committees of Correspondence
    • mid 1700s
    • In Boston communicated with other colonies to encourage opposition to the sugar and currency acts (before the stamp act). Exchanged ideas and information about resistance
  4. First Continental Congress
    • 1774
    • Sparked by opposition to the intolerable acts, held in Philidelphia, bringing together most prominent political leaders of 12 mainland colonies (without GA). Called for an almost complete halt of trade with Britain and West Indes, encouraged domestic manufacturing, authorized local committees of safety. Agreed to reconvene the following may if demands were not met.
  5. Second Continental Congress
    • 1775
    • War had broken out between British Soldiers and Mass citizens. Authorized raising on army, printed money, and appointed George Washington its commander.
  6. Declaration of Independence
    • 1776
    • Congress formally declared colonies independent from Britain. Written by Thomas Jefferson and revised by Congress. Most of it is a list of grievences against King George III. Declared basic rights for colonists. Purpose is theory of government and to justify rebellion.
  7. Articles of Confederation
    • 1777
    • First written constitution of U.S., drafted by congress then ratified by states 4 years later. Sought to balance the need for national coordination of the War of Independence with fear that centralized power was dangerous to liberty. Declared US to be "perpetual union". 13 states retained individual "sovereignty, freedom, and independence", 1 house congress in which each state got to cast 1 vote. No president, no judiciary system. Major decisions required approval of 9/13 states, not simple majority.
  8. Shay's Rebellion
    • 1786-1787
    • crowds of debt-ridden farmers lead by Samuel Shays
    • taxes had reacher 1/3 of annual income
    • closed the courts in western Mass. to prevent the seizure of their land for failure to pay debts and state taxes, Mass. refused to help needy debtors
    • rebels thought they were acting for the Revolution
    • Gov. had no real army, so dispatched private armies, 1000 arrested rebels
    • step in series of events that lead to the strengthening of national government so it could develop uniform economic policies and protect property owners from infringements on their rights by local majorities
  9. Constitutional Convention
    • 1787
    • scrap Articles of Confederation
    • 55 delegates, most born into "propertied families", believed they needed a stronger central government
    • new gov't would create 3 branch system - executive, legislative, judiciary
    • needed to find middle ground between monarchy and "too democratic"- need to find balance between liberty and power
    • Virginia plan (state pop. count for votes) and New Jersey plan (1 vote for each state) lead to 2 house congress for better representation
    • technically created illegally because it did not follow the rules of the Articles of Confederation which says that all 13 states needed to approve
  10. 3/5 Rule
    • 1787
    • 3/5 of the slave population would be counted in determining each state's representation in the House of Representatives and it's electoral votes for president
    • established during Const. Convention
    • Southern states refused to sign Constitution if slavery was forbidden
    • greatly increased the number of votes the South got, 4/16 first presidents were from slave-holding South
  11. Federalists
    • late 1700
    • wanted: strong central gov't, tariff, unified groups
    • believe that gov't is expression of freedom, checks and balances and division of power in Constitution make tyranny impossible
    • pro-constitution
    • The Federalist Papers - written by Hamilton and Madison, made to generate support to ratify the Constitution, controlled press + media
  12. Anti-Federalist
    • late 1700
    • opponents of ratification of Constitution - thought it shifted balance between liberty and power too far in the direction of power
    • objected: central power, taxation, the senate, President (veto power), ambiguity, national judiciary, no Bill of Rights, difficult to amend
    • included people like state politicians who were afraid of seeing their influence decrease, also small farmers who saw no need for stronger central gov't
    • afraid Constitution was so broad it may enact a law of abolition
    • afraid Constitution would favor elite and ignore commonmen - not have enough money to run for office
    • pointed out LACK OF BILL OF RIGHTS, individual states had bill of rights, why not country
  13. Whig
    • founded 1834
    • protect private property
    • united factions opposed to Pres. Andrew Jackson
    • favored Federal responsibility for internal improvements
    • ceased to exist in 1850's when party broke up over issue of slavery
  14. Loyalists
    • late 1700s
    • colonists who remained loyal to Great Britain during War of Independence
  15. Universal Manhood Sufferage
    • 1869
    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton thought that Reconstruction should be time for woman's suffrage also, but Douglass said that it was the "Negro's hour"
    • 14th Amendment introduced the word "male", 15th Amendment said no man could be excluded from voting, but excluded women
    • Stanton said that she has more of a right to vote then "Patrick, Sambo, Hans, and Yung Tung"
  16. Northwest Ordinance
    • 1787
    • called for eventual establishment of from 3-5 states north of Ohio River and East of Mississippi
    • Jefferson said would be added as "empire of liberty" instead of as colonial ruling
    • territorial expansion and self-gov't would grow together
    • would not take Indians land without consent - first official recognition of Indians
  17. James Madison
    • 1751-1836
    • spearheaded the movement for a stronger nat'l gov't
    • from Virginia
    • wrote about Shay's Rebellion and need for new constitution
    • "father of the Constitution" - only 36 years old when Constitution Convention met
    • Nationalist, Republican
    • co-author of The Federalist
    • 4th President of United States (1809 - 1817)
    • declared War of 1812
  18. George Washington
    • 1732-1799
    • 1rst Pres. of United States (1789-1797)
    • commander of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War from (1775 -1783)
    • needed his glasses because the war ruined his eyes during speech when his troops were upset they were not getting paid
  19. Alexander Hamilton
    • 1757?-1804
    • Nationalist
    • author of The Federalist
    • 1rst United States Secretary of the Treasury
    • died in famous duel with Aaron Burr
  20. John Adams
    • 1735-1826
    • 2nd US President
    • leading role in organizing the Sons of Liberty and Committee of Corresponence
    • conservative, but hoped everyone could aquire land
    • never owned slaves
  21. Thomas Jefferson
    • 1743-1826
    • 3rd President of US
    • primary author of Dec of Independence
    • wanted "Empire of Liberty"
    • favored states rights with a looser central gov't
  22. Democratic Republicans
    • early 1800s
    • founders of party were Jefferson and Madison
    • Democratic-Republican societies (1793-1794) inspired by Jacobian clubs in Paris (who were supporters of the French Rev.)
    • critics of Washington administration
    • all men are naturally free with equal rights, all legitimate gov't oriiginates in the voluntary social compact off the people, favored states rights
  23. Alien and Sedition Acts
    • 1798
    • Alien Act allowed deportation from abroad who were deemed "dangerous"
    • Sedition Act authorized prosecution of any public assembly or publication critical of gov't
    • opposition editors could be prosecuted for almost any political comment - main target was Republicans who did not agree with Federalists
    • Jefferson said "reign of witches" recalling Salem witch trials
    • compared to the Stamp Act of Rev. times
  24. Virginia and Kentucky Resolves
    • late 1700s
    • attacks on the Sedition Act as an unconstitutional violation of 1rst Amendment
    • Virginia's (written by Madison) called on the federal courts to protect free speech
    • Kentucky (written by Jefferson) asserted that states could nullify laws of Congress that violated the Constitution, states could unilaterally prevent the enforcement of such laws within their borders
  25. Hartford Convention
    • 1812
    • Federalists gathered to voice their party's long standing grievances, especially domination of the federal gov't by Virginia presidents and their own region's declining influence as new western states entered the union
    • called for amending the Constitution to eliminate 3/5 clause; require a 2/3 vote of congress for admission of new states, declarations of war, and trade laws
    • did NOT call for secsession or disunion, but DID affirm the right of a state to "interpose" if federal gov't violated Constitution
    • lead to collapse of Federalist party - too elistist and distrustful of popular self-gov't
  26. Abolition(ism)
    • early to mid 1800s
    • Social movement of pre-Civil War era that advocated the immediate emancipation of the slaves and their incorporation into American society as equal citizens
  27. American Colonization Society
    • 1816
    • promoted the gradual abolition of slavery and settlement of black Americans in Africa
    • important because brought up the idea that slavery should be able to end without deportation of black people
  28. Missouri Compromise
    • 1820
    • Deal proposed by Kentucky senator Henry Clay
    • to resolve the slave/free imbalance in Congress that would result from Missouri's admission as a slave state, Maine's admission as a free state to balance
    • slavery was prohibited in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory north of the southern border of Missouri
  29. Second Great Awakening
    • early 1800s
    • Religious revival movement of the early decades of the nineteenth century, in reaction to the growth of secularism and rationalist religion; began the predominance of the Baptist and Methodist churches
  30. Shakers
    • peak 1840s
    • Founded by Mother Ann Lee in England
    • United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing settled in Watervliet, New York in 1774
    • established 18 additional communes
    • God duel personality - male and female - equal sexes
    • no sex because God told Mother Ann no
  31. Frederick Douglass
    • 1817-1895
    • fugitive slave who become prominent abolitionist
    • secretly taught self to read and write - knowledge is "the pathway from slavery to freedom"
    • ran away in 1838 to the North
    • got on Abe Lincoln's case about salve issues
    • thought emancipated slaves deserved right to vote (got in cat fight with Elizabeth Cady Stanton)
  32. Sojourner Truth
    • mid 1800s
    • born into slavery - got freedom at NY emancipation
    • black woman who was an abolitionist and womens rights activist
    • famous speech "Ain't I a Woman" at Ohio Women's Rights Convention in 1851 - showed her strength as a woman, not too delicate to do work outside the home
  33. Sarah Grimke, Angelina Grimke
    • 1830's
    • the Grimke sisters - went from Quakerism to Abolitionism
    • started delivering popular lectures that offered a scathing condemnation of slavery from the perspective of those who had witnessed its evils firsthand
    • used controversy over their speeches as a springboard fir a vigorous arguement against the idea that taking part in assemblies, demonstrations, and lectures was unfeminine - defended right to debate and right to share the social and educational privileges enjoyed by men
    • first to apply abolitionist doctrine of universal freedom and equality to the status of women
    • writings of Angelina helped spark women's rights movement in 1840s
  34. Female Moral Reform Society
    • 1834
    • organized by middle class NY women
    • sought to redeem prostitutes from lives of sin and protect the morality of single women
    • attacked era's double standard by publishing lists of men who frequently use prostitutes or abuse women
    • by 1840, replicated in hundreds of American communities
  35. Tory
    • late 1700s
    • believe in benevolent king/queen who would not be focused on reelection
    • go to England and Canada --> wealth and connection
    • connected to colonial gov't
    • urban/wealthy
    • rural/wealthy
    • small farmers (German or recent England Immigrants)
    • Quakers were pacifists so they were Tories by default
  36. Southwest Ordinance
    • 1790s
    • what created the Southwest Territory
    • KY, TN
  37. Manumission
    definition: to be set free from slavery
  38. Sons of Cincinatti
    • late 1700s
    • a society formed to "preserve the ideals and fellowship of the Revolutionary War officers and to pressure the government to honor pledges it had made to officers who fought for American independence"
  39. Compact Theory of Government
    • early 1800s
    • Calhoun's theory
    • the theory that the Constitution was made up of a "compact" of all the states, the states made the government together, it is a product of the states
  40. Tallmadge Amendment
    • mid 1800s
    • gradual emancipation
    • once slave turns 25 he is set free (if he was born a slave)
    • attack on slavery
    • only passed by a little bit, all the slave holding states voted against - importance: showed division in states
    • North argued that congress had power to decide conditions of statehood
  41. John C. Calhoun
    • early 1800s
    • saw future separation of slave vs. free
    • thought compromise = avoiding the issue
    • leading theorist of nullification and states rights
    • "Nat'l gov't had been created by an agreement among sovereign states, each of which retained the right to prevent the enforcement within its borders of acts of Congress that exceeded the powers specifically spelled out in the constitution"
  42. nullification crisis
    • 1832
    • North Carolina wanted to nullify (declare null and void in their state) the tariff on 1828 (which raised taxes on imported manufactured goods made of wool as well on raw materials like iron)
    • Calhoun denied nullification as a step toward disunion, but Jackson though that it would tear the union apart
    • Jackson persuaded Congress to enact Force Bill authorizing him to use the army and navy to collect the money
    • Calhoun and Henry Clay wrote a new tariff that further reduced duties
  43. Tariff of Abominations
    • 1828
    • what the "Tariff of 1828" that raised taxes on imported manufactured goods made of wool as well on raw materials like iron was called in South Carolina
    • The South hated it
    • sparked the nullification crisis
  44. theory of interposition
    • late 1700s
    • the asserted right of U.S. states to protect their individual interests from federal violation or any abridgement of states' rights deemed by those states to be dangerous or unconstitutional
    • Virginia Resolve
  45. George Fitzhugh
    • 1850
    • Virginia lawyer
    • wrote "universal liberty" was the exception, an experiment carried on "for a little while" in "a corner of Europe" and the United States. Taking the world and its history as a whole, slavery, "without regard to race and color," was "the general,... normal, natural" basis of "civilized society."
    • argued that since slaves in the South did not have to deal with the gov't, they are in a sense the freest people in America
    • slaves need the protection of slavery
  46. Nat Turner
    • 1831
    • best known of all slave rebels
    • slave preacher, mystic Virginia
    • chosen by God "to lead black uprising"
    • July 4th 1830, rebellion killing - white inhabitants, women/children, men were gone on religious retreat
  47. Thomas Dew
    • early/mid 1800s
    • Professor at the college of William and Mary in VA
    • published and influential pamphlet pointing to the absurdity of deporting the bulk of the states labor force
  48. William Lloyd Garrison
    • 1831
    • founded the Liberator newspaper
    • called for "immediate emancipation"
  49. The Liberator
    • 1831
    • abolitionist newspaper
    • weekly out of Boston for 35 years
  50. Liberty Party
    • 1848
    • abolitionist political party that nominated James G Birney for president in 1840 and 1844
    • merged with the free soil party in 1848
    • on path to forming the Republican party
  51. Free Soil Party
    • mid 1800s
    • formed in 1848 to oppose slavery in the territory aquired in the Mexican War
    • nominated Martin Van Buren for president in 1848
    • by 1854 most of the party's members had joined the Republican party
  52. Alexis de Tocqueville
    • French political thinker and historian best known for his Democracy in America
    • "he agreed with thinkers such as Aristotle and Montesquieu that the balance of property determined the balance of political power, but his conclusions after that differed radically from those of his predecessors."
    • " assimilation of blacks would be almost impossible and this was already being demonstrated in the Northern states. As Tocqueville predicted, formal freedom and equality and segregation would become this population's reality after the Civil War and duringReconstruction — as would the bumpy road to true integration of blacks."
  53. Andrew Jackson
    • 1829-1837
    • 7th President
    • Jacksonian democracy, dominated American politics
    • supported slavery/removed Indians
    • associated with American Frontier
  54. Miscingenation
    The mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, and procreation
  55. Jim Crow
    • 1830s
    • minstrel show character whos name became synonymous with racial segregation
    • white men in balckface portraying stereotypes
  56. Wilmont Proviso
    • 1846
    • proposal to prohibit slavery in any land acquired in the Mexican War
    • but Southern Senators led by John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
    • defeated the measure in 1846 and 1847
  57. Compromise of 1850
    • 1850
    • Complex compromise devised by senator Henry Clay that admitted California to the Union as a free State
    • included a stronger fugitive slave law, and delayed determination of the slave status of the New Mexico and Utah territories
  58. Transportation Revolution
    • first half of 1800s
    • in rapid succession, the steamboat, canal, railroad, and telegraph wrenched America out of its economic past
    • this opened up NEW LAND to settlement, lowered transportation costs, made it easier for economic enterprises to sell their products
    • let Farmers have a world market
  59. Erie Canal
    • 1825
    • world's longest man-made waterway
    • linked the region around the Great Lakes with the Atlantic coast via the Hudson River
  60. Antebellum
    • 1789-1849
    • Preicivil war America, especially the pre-civil war culture in the Southern states
    • After the American Revolution and establishment of the US, before the US Civil War, slavery was an accepted part of antebellum plantation life
  61. Seneca Falls Convention
    • 1848
    • First women's rights meeting and the genesis of the womens suffrage movement
    • held in July in a church in Seneca Falls, NT
    • organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Ucretia Coffin Mott
  62. Declaration of Sentiments
    • 1848
    • document signed by 68 women and 32 men = 100, and of some 300 attendees at the first women's rights convention (Seneca Falls)
    • written primarily by Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    • based on Dec. of Independence
  63. Labor Theory of Value
    • economic theories of value according to which the values of commodities are related to the labor needed to produce them
    • classical economists: Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx
  64. Fugitive Slave Laws/Act
    • Act: 1850
    • gave federal gov't authority in cases involving run away slaves
    • aroused considerable opposition in the North
  65. Liberty Laws
    • 1850
    • Laws passed by US in the North to counter the Fugitive Slave Laws
    • States like Indiana (1824) and Connecticut (1828) enacted laws giving escaped slaves the right to jury, trials, or appeal
    • Vermont and New York provided attorneys
  66. Harriet Beecher Stowe
    • mid 1800s
    • wrote the most effective piece of antislavery literature of entire period
    • Uncle Toms Cabin
    • sold over 1 million copies in the first 3 years
    • gave the abolitionist message a powerful human appeal
  67. Uncle Tom's Cabin
    • 1852
    • Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery novel
    • popularized the abolitionist position
  68. Franklin Pierce
    • President in 1852
    • Democrat
    • won over Winfield Scott on a platform that recognized the compromise as a final settlement of the slavery controversy
    • recieved a broad popular mandate, winning 254 electoral votes to Scott's 42
    • His administration turned out to be one of the most disasterous in American History
    • witnessed the collapse of the party system inherited from the age of Jackson
  69. Winfield Scott
    • mid 1800s
    • ordered by Polk to march troops inland from the port of Vera Cruz toward Mexico city
    • His forces routed Mexican defenders
    • In Sept occupied the country's capitol
  70. Stephen Douglas
    • 1813-1861
    • Illinois senator
    • Introduced a bill to provide territorial gov'ts for Kansas and Nebraska, located within the Louisiana Purchase
    • Strong believer in Western development
  71. Republican Party
    • 1854
    • organized by anti-slavery Whigs, Democrats and Free soldiers in response to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act
    • nominated John c Fremont for President in 1856 and Abe Lincoln in 1860
    • also the name of the party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1790s
  72. Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • 1854
    • Law sponsered by Illinois senatory Stephen A. Douglas to allow settlers in newly organized territories north of Missouri border to decide the slavery issue for themselves
    • fury over the resulting repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 lead to violence in Kansas and to the formation of the Republican party
  73. Ostend Manifesto
    • 1854
    • memorandum written in 1854 from Ostend,Belgium, but the US ministers to England, France, Spain, and recommending purchase or seizure of Cuba in order to increase the uS slave holding territory
  74. Bleeding Kansas
    • 1856
    • violence between pro- and anti- slavery settlers in the Kansas terrtory
  75. John Brown
    • 1856
    • American abolitionist
    • advacated and practiced armed insurrection as a means to end all slavery
    • led the Pottanatomie Massacre in 1856 in Bleeding Kansas
    • made his name in the unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry in 1859
    • controversial American
    • "patriotic treason"
    • played a major role in starting the civil war
  76. Harper's Ferry
    • 1859
    • Virginia
    • site of abolitionist John Brown's failed raid on the federal arsenal
    • Brown became a martyr to his cause after his capture and execution
  77. John Fremont
    • 1854
    • head of a small scientific expedition in the west
    • Californians incorporated into the US
    • election of 1854 - republican party chose him as their candidate
    • drafter a platform that strongly opposed the further expansion of slavery
  78. Abraham Lincoln
    • 1850s
    • thought secession illegal
    • willing to use force to defend federal law and the union
    • republican nomination for president 1860
    • issued emancipation proclaimation
  79. Dred Scott Decision
    • 1857
    • Dred Scott vs. Stanford
    • US Supreme Court decision on which Cheif Justice Roger B Taney ruled that congress could not prohibit slavery in the territories on the grounds that such a prohibition would violate the fifth amendment of slaveholders, and that no black person could be a citizen of the US
  80. Lecompton Constitution
    drafted by a pro-southerner convention convinced southern Dems that they couldn't trust their party's most popular northern leader
  81. Crittenden Compromise
    • 1860
    • Last ditch effort to resolve the secession crisis by political negotiation
    • authorized by Kentucky senator John Crittenden by addressing the concerns that led the states of the lower south to contemplate secsession
    • consisted of a preamble, proposed 6 amendments, and 4 congressional resolutions
  82. Restoration
    • early 1800s
    • christian movement began on American Frontier during the second great awakening
    • restoring the church and stem from the 1rst century church
    • Barton W. Stone and Cane Ridge
  83. Reconstruction
    • 1867
    • established temporary military gov'ts in 10 confederate states (except Tennessee) and required that the states ratify the 14th amendment and permit freedom to vote
  84. Trail of Tears
    • 1838-1839
    • Cherokees' own term for their forced removal from the southeast to Indian lands
    • of 15,000 forced to march, 4,000 died
  85. 14th Amendment
    • 1868
    • sect 1 = all persons born in the US are citizens of the US and the state where they live, no state can enforce laws that shall abridge privilages of the citizens of US nor shall any state harm life, liberty, property w/o due process
    • sect 2 = representatives shall be apportioned among the states. counting the whole number of people on each state, excluding indians (not taxed)
  86. 15th Amendment
    • 1868
    • The right of citizens (men) of the US to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of serviitude
    • the congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation
  87. Freedman's Bureau
    • 1865
    • reconstruction agency established in 1865 to protect the legal rights of former slaves, and to assit with their education, jobs, health care, and landowning
  88. Thaddeus Stevens
    • 1850
    • opposed the Fugative Slave Laws
    • Elected to congress as an anti-slavery Whig
    • opposed the compromise of 1850
    • critic of Andrew Jackson's Reconstruction Policy
    • Effort to confiscate plantations and redistribute land to former slaves
  89. Compromise (Bargain) 1877
    • 1877
    • deal made by a Republican and democratic special congressional commission to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876
    • Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, who had the popular vote, was declared the winner in exchange for the withdrawl of federal troops from involvement in politics in the south - marking the end of reconstruction
Card Set
Hist 251 Final
US History from Midterm to final, 1750's - 1877