1. National Unification: Italy and Germany
    The breakdown of the Concert of Europe allowed iTaly and Germany to establish national states. Their unifications transformed the power structure. 
  2. The Unification of Italy
    • a.      1850: Austria dominant on Italian peninsula
    •                                                               i.      After failure of revolution of 1848-49  advocated for Italian unification focused on n. Italian state of Piedmont as best hope
    • 1.      Royal hosue of Savoy ruled the kingdom of Piedmont, which included Sardinia
  3. Defeated by Austrians
    • a.      Although defeated by Austrians in 48-’49, Piedmont under King Charles Albert tried; it seemed reasonable that Piedmont would be leader of national unity
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      The little state seemed unlikely to supply the needed leadership until Victor Emmanuel II, named Count Camillo di Cavour as prime minister in 1852
  4. The Leadership of Cavour
    •                                                               i.      Character: liberal-minded nobleman; rich by agriculture, banking, railroads, and shipping
    • 1.      Moderate who favored constitutional government
    • 2.      Consummate politician with ability to persuade others of rightness of his own convictions
  5. After becoming prime minister
    •                                                               i.      After becoming prime minister in 1852, he pursued policy in economic expansion, encouraging the building of roads, canals, etc. and fostering business enterprise by expanding credit and stimulating investment in new industries
    • 1.      The growth in the Piedmontese economy and the increase in government revenues allowed Cavour to use money for army
  6. Cavour knew
    •                                                               i.      Cavour knew military wasn’t strong enough to challenge Austria directly
    • 1.      He needed French and came to agreement with Napoelon III in 1858
    • a.      Emperor agreed to ally with Piedmont in driving the Austrians out of Italy
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Once driven out, Italy would be reorganized, with Piedmont extending into kingdom of Upper Italy by adding Lombardy, Venetia, Parma, Modena, and some of Papal States
  7. France 
    1.      France would receive Piedmont’s Savoy and Nice and a kingdom of C. Italy would be created for Napoleon’s cousin, Prince Napoleon, who’d be married to daughter of King Victor Emmanuel 

    • a.      Agreement seemed to assure the French ruler of opportunity to control Italy
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Confident with this, he provoked Austrians into invading Piedomont
  8. Fighting : Initial stages
    • 1.      Initial stages: French defeated Austrians at Battles at Magenta and Solferino
    • a.      French also made peace with Austria w/o Italy knowing
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Why did French withdraw quickly?
    • 1.      Napoleon saw that despite two defeats, the Austrians weren’t defeated, elading to a longer struggle
    • 2.      Prussians were mobilizing in support of Austria, and Napoleon didn’t want two enemies
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      As a result of peace, Piedmont got only Lombardy; Venetia still Austria’s. 
  9. Cavour response
    •                                                               i.      Cavour was pissed! Still, events in n. Italy were in his favor
    • 1.      Soon after war with Austria began, some n. Italian states were taken over by nationalists
    • a.      In plebiscites held in 1860, these staets agreed to join Piedomont and Napoleon agreed to annexations in return for Nice and Savoy
  10. The Efforts of Garibaldi
    •                                                               i.      In s. Italy, a new leader of Italian unification rose up
    •                                                             ii.      Giuseppe Garibaldi: a dedicated Italian patriot who supported Mazzini and republican cause of Young Italy, raised army of 1000 Red Shirts and landed in Sicily, where a revolt broke out against Bourbon king of the Two Sicilies
  11. Forces Greatly Outnumbered
    • 1.      Forces greatly outnumbered, but Garibaldi won
    • a.      By end of July 1860, most of Sicily was pacified under Garibaldi’s control
    • b.      In August, Garibaldi and his forces crossed over to mainland and began victorious march up the Italiian peninsula
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Naples and the Two Sicilies fell
  12. Cavour and Garibaldi
    • 1.      Now, Cavour was aware that Garibaldi planned to march on Rome, which may cause war with France as defender of  papal interests
    • a.      Moreover, Garibaldi and his men favored a democratic republicanism; Cavour didn’t and acted quickly to preempt Garibaldi
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      The Piedmontese army invaded the Papal States and, bypassing Rome, moved into Naples, where Garibaldi yielded to Cavour’s fait accompli rather than cause civil warà retired to farm
  13. Plebiscites
    • 1.      Plebiscites in the Papal States and the Two Sicilies resulted in support for union with Piedmont
    • a.      ON March 17, 1861, the new kingdom of Italy= centralized government subordinated to the control of Piedmont and King Victor Emmanuel II of the house of Savoy
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Cavour died three months later
  14. Unification
    •                                                               i.      Despite proclamation of the new kingdom, unification not yet complete since Venetia was still Austria’s and Rome was papal control, supported by French troops
    • 1.      Attack would mean war, which Italains were unprepared for
    • 2.      The Prussian army completed task of unification indirectly
  15. Austro-Prussian War
    • a.      In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the new Italian state became an ally of Prussia
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Although Italian army defeated by Austrians, Prussia’s victory left Italians with Venetia
    • b.      In 1870, the Franco-Prussian Warà withdrawal of French troops from Romeà Italian army annexed the city and Rome was capital of united Italian state
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