Human Anatomy/Physiology Chapter 4

  1. What refers to carbon-containing substances?
  2. What is a nitrogen-containing waste product?
    Urea. Due to the breakdown of protein, the nitrogen part of the amino acid (amine) is either recycled or converted to urea. Urea, if the liver is malfunctioned, will create ammonia, which damages the brain.
  3. What are the building blocks of lipids?
    Fatty acids and glycerol.
  4. What is a polysaccharide that is non-digestible and found in plants?
    Cellulose. It is a straight-chained polysaccharide found in plants. Although we do not have the enzymes to digest cellulose as a source of nutrients, this polysaccharide plays an important role in our digestive process. The cellulose provides the fiber in our diet and improves digestive function in many ways.
  5. In addition to protein being composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen (amino acids), what else does protein contain?
    Nitrogen. The nitrogen appears as an amine group (NH2).
  6. What are building blocks of protein and joined together by peptide bonds?
    Amino acids. A peptide bond is formed when the amine group of one amino acid joins the acid  group of a second amino acid.
  7. What sub-branch of amino acids cannot be synthesized by the human body hence has to be obtained through dietary intake?
    Essential amino acids. Because dietary intake of these amino acids is essential, these amino acids are called essential amino acids.
  8. Which out of the five different monosaccharides provides the primary source of energy for cells?
  9. What are the building blocks of protein?
    Amino acids.
  10. What sub-branch of saccharides does sucrose, maltose, and lactose (sometimes called double sugars) fall into?
    Disaccharides. They are made when two monosaccharides are linked together. They must be digested, or broken down, into monosaccharides before they can be absorbed across the walls of the digestive tract and used by the cells.
  11. What saccharide branch does glucose, fructose, and galactose fall into?
  12. What is called animal starch and is glucose stored as a polysaccharide?
    Glycogen. Glycogen is stored primarily in the liver and skeletal muscle. When blood sugar levels become low, the glycogen is converted to glucose and released into the blood, where it restores normal blood sugar levels.
  13. What do you call amino acids that can be synthesized by the body?
    Non-essential amino acids.
  14. What classifies triglycerides and steroids and are also called fats and oils?
  15. What type of chemical reactions build larger, more complex substances?
    Anabolism. The building of a large protein from individual amino acids is an example of anabolism.
  16. What is formed when the amine group of alanine joines with the acid part of valine?
    Peptide bond.
  17. What is produced by rapid, incomplete breakdown of fatty acids?
    Ketone bodies. (Pg. 433t).
  18. What words describes chemical reactions that degrade larger, more complex substances into simpler substances?
  19. What describes a series of reaction that anaerobically break down glucose to lactic acid?
  20. What describes a series of aerobic reactions that occur in the mitochondria?
    Krebs Cycle.
  21. What substance, in the absence of oxygen, is produced following the production of pyruvic acid?
    Lactic acid.
  22. What are the end-produces of the aerobic catabolism of glucose?
    CO2, H2O, and energy (ATP).
  23. What catalyzes almost every chemical reaction in the body?
    Enzyme. When proteins perform the role of catalysts, they are called enzymes.
  24. What series of anaerobic reactions occurs within the cytoplasm?
Card Set
Human Anatomy/Physiology Chapter 4
Cell Metabolism