what is the scientific name for a mice?
what order are mice in?
what family are mice in?
what are the 2 most common colors of mice?
which is more common?***
that are the 4 main strains of mice used in research?
what are outbred strains?
what do they mimmick?
- strains from random breeding to create genetic variety
- mimmicks a human population
what are the problems with using an outbred strain for research?
- with genetic variety comes result variety
- genetic dzs are present
genetically, outbred strains are ______
what are inbred strains?
- result of a single family mating
- 20 generations
inbred strains are _____
what is a BALB/c strain?
what is a C57BL strain?
what are the benefits with using inbred strains?
- low variations of genetics=low variations of research results
what are congenic strains?
animals different @ one particular locus?
what are transgenic strains?
micro inj. of DNA into mouse eggs for production of specific disease models
what are mutant strains?
- inbred types of mice
- ex: Nude mice/rats
what is the difference between nude mice and normal mice?
- they lack a thymus
- (T cells=immunocompromised)
what is SCID?
severe compromised immuno-deficiency
what do SCIDs lack?
- B & T cells
- pretty much dont have an immune system
what are the 5 types of ecological types of mice?
- germ free (axenic)
- (SPF) Specific Pathogen Free
- Sentinel animals
- completely germ free, contain no detectable microflora***
- normal flora too!
Associated with a known micro flora
how are gnotobiotic created?
giving normoflora to an axenic pt
which Ecological type is most common?
- free of specific pathogens
- (have normal flora, no bad bacteria/dzs)
- animals w. undefined microflora
- no serology testing or specific breeding
- (normal pet, normal animal)
- healthy animal is placed in a room w. other animals to detect presence of a dz
- "sent in kennel" as quality control
what happens to sentinel animals every 3 months?
euthanized and tested completely for disease
what type of animals are usually used as sentinel animals?
short life spans
can study generations over a short pd time
large litter size
great genetic diversity
maintenance is easy
reasons for mice being used so frequently in lab animal research
what is the life span of a mouse?
what is the gestational pd of mice?
what are the cons of toxicity testing?
large numbers of animals needed
mice are _____ animals and can be housed in groups.
what mice should be housed alone?
what is barbering?
when a dominant mouse in a group removes the facial hair from all other mice in the cage
what are two reasons for barbering?
what are two solutions to stop barbering?
- boredom and dominance
- remove barbor from the cage or provide more enrichment
what is the clinical significance with boredom?
- boredom causes stress
- stress causes cortisol
- cortisol decreases immune function
what does iacuc require that the mice have in their cage?
mice have a ____ developed sense of smell
mice have _______ hearing
mice have ______ eyesight
what is the norm. body temp of a mouse?
what is the norm. HR?
what is the normal RR?
what is the weaning age?
how are mice supposed to be initially handled?
base of the tail
what can happen if the tail is gripped towards the tip?
what is degloving/tail slip?
what is the tx?
- skin seperates from the muscle
- euthanasia usually
what is the decapicone?
piece of plastic that fits the entire mouseused w. people that cannot make a fist
what is the dental formula for mice?
what causes the incisors to change color?
what color do teeth change w. age?
- continuously grow
- hypsodonic dentition
______ may prevent normal wear of the teeth
_____ may be necessary for malocclused teeth
clipping or cutting
what tool is preferred for cutting of the teeth?
what is it similar to?
do molars continuously grow?
what are the 2 uses for tails?
- thermoregulation- release heat, cannot sweat
what is the most common type of tumor in mice?
what are the common locations for mammary tumors?
what may be used for sexing?
how many mammary glands do they usually have?
- 5 pairs
- 3 thoracic
- 2 abdominal
males have open ______
this means they can _______
- inguinal canals
- retract their testicles
males also have a _____ similar to a dog
what are the predominant WBCs in mice?
what is the urine of mice like?
highly concentrated with high protein content
what does the conc. of urine mean for maintenance?
- cleaning at least once a week
what are reactive lymphocytes seen with?
lymphosarcoma or recent vaccine
what do reactive lymphos look like?
lacrimal type of gland
what do harderian glands secrete?
red staining tears from stress
what is the term for red tears?
how long is the estus cycle?
what kind of ovulators are mice?
what gets secreted by the female after mating?
how long after mating can this be seen?
in what setting might this be important?
- copulatory plug
- 12-36 hours after
- when breeding mice
what happens 24 hours after parturition?
what kind of nest is built for the pups?
when are they born?
what is the average litter size?
when should the cage be cleaned and food/water replaced with a pregnant mouse?
a week before parturition
how do you age pups?
based on hair coat and if their eyes are open
when does their hair start growing?
when do their eyes open?
what is the whitten effect?
group or one female is exposed to a male, the majority will be in estrus by the 3rd night
what is the Bruce effect?
pregnant female will abort the litter she has within 48 hours of copulation if exposed to another male
what is the Lee Boot effect?
if female is bred during post partum estrus, they will have an extended gestation
what are the 2 parts of their one stomach?
- glandular part
- aglandular part
- ingesting feces
- recycle B vitamins that are excreted with the bacteria in their colon
what prevents mice from vomiting?
what kind of fat do mice have a good amount of?
where is it located?
- brown fat
- between shoulders and around kidneys
what does brown fat store energy as?
how much energy is provided by brown fat when compared to normal fat?
10x the amount from brown fat! :D