Biochem exam 2

  1. Both glycogenesis and glycogenolysis are controlled primarily by the interplay between the two hormones insulin and ________.





    E)
  2. Hexokinase D is found in the _______.





    B)
  3. An enzyme family called the _________ catalyzes the phosphorylation of hexoses in the body.





    E)
  4. The conversion of glucose-1-phosphate to UDP-glucose has a ΔG0’ near zero. Which of the following reactions is coupled with the above reaction to drive it to completion?





    E)
  5. Which of the following is required for the conversion of UDP-glucose to glycogen?





    E)
  6. A glycogen molecule that has been degraded to its branch points is called





    D)
  7. Regulation of glycolysis involves all of the following except





    E)
  8. The binding of insulin to receptors on the surface of muscle cells stimulates which of the following processes





    D)
  9. Under stressful conditions epinephrine is released from the adrenal medulla. The release of epinephrine has which of the following effects on glucose metabolism?





    E)
  10. Phosphorylase kinase





    A)
  11. Cori’s disease is caused by





    C)
  12. Which of the following activates phosphoprotein phosphatase?





    A)
  13. Glucose-6-phosphate is a substrate in which of the following processes?





    E)
  14. Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate





    A)
  15. The Embden-Myerhof pathway is also referred to as





    B)
  16. In glycolysis, net ________ moles of ATP are produced per mole of glucose consumed.





    A)
  17. In glycolysis ________ moles of NADH are produced per mole of glucose consumed





    D)
  18. The presence of which of the following molecules indicates that the cell has sufficient energy reserves?





    E)
  19. Which of the following enzymes is an oxidoreductase?





    C)
  20. The first reaction in the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway is catalyzed by





    C)
  21. Which of the following enzymes catalyzes an irreversible process?





    D)
  22. In anaerobic organisms pyruvate is used to regenerate cellular ________.





    D)
  23. Allosteric regulation of which of the following enzymes is important in the regulation of glycolysis?





    E)
  24. Gluconeogenesis occurs primarily in the 





    E)
  25. Which of the following molecules can be used to synthesize glucose via gluconeogenesis?





    E)
  26. Which of the following is the most important glucogenic amino acid?





    E)
  27. Gluconeogenesis is stimulated by high concentrations of which of the following compounds?





    E)
  28. Which of the following is an oxidizing agent in fermentation?





    C)
  29. In addition to glucose which of the following sugars are important in the human diet?





    D)
  30. Intermediates in the nonoxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway include all of the following except





    E)
  31. The use of a highly exergonic reaction in the beginning of a catabolic pathway is referred to as  





    B)
  32. Aldol cleavage of which of the following sugars will produce one mole each of dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde?





    D)
  33. Which of the following is a second messenger in glycogenolysis?





    C)
  34. In animals excess glucose is converted into its storage form  ________


    Starch  
    Chitin
    Glycogen
    Amylose
    Amylopectin
    C
  35. The major carbohydrate fuel for most organisms is


    Glucose
    Fructose
    Ribose
    Sucrose
    All of the above
    A
  36. Which of the following enzymes is not required in gluconeogenesis?

    A) Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxekinase
    B)  Phosphofructokinase
    C)  Pyruvate kinase (also in glycolysis)
    D) Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
    E)  Pyruvate carboxylase
    B+C
  37. The final product of glycolysis is 





    B)
  38. The principal products of the pentose phosphate pathway include





    E)
  39. Flux of which of the following sugars into the glycolytic pathway is essentially unregulated.





    B)
  40. Conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate has two purposes. One is the commitment of the molecule to glycolysis, the second is 





    E)
  41. Which of the following enzymes will catalyze the first committed step in glycolysis



    Phosphofructoisomeras
    Aldolase
    Triose phosphate isomerase
    Phosphofructokinase  1
    Phosphoglucooisomerase
    D
  42. The Crabtree effect in yeast is







    E)
  43. The Pasteur Effect is






    C)
  44. A diauxic shift is






    D)
  45. The phosphorolation of glucose  when it enters a cell accomplishes which of the following.







    C)
  46. Which of the following compounds is an end product of anerobic respiration?







    C)
  47. Place the following reaction intermediates of the citric acid cycle in chronological order. i. malate,  ii fumarate, iii succinylCoA, iv citrate, v α-ketoglutarate.





    A)
  48. Oxalosuccinate is a transient intermediate formed during which of the following reactions?





    C)
  49. FADH2 is a product of which of the following reactions?





    C)
  50. NADH is produced in which of the following reactions?





    E)
  51. In the glyoxylate cycle two-carbon molecules are converted to precursors of which of the following?





    E)
  52. Which of the following enzymes is unique to the glyoxylate cycle __________?





    B)
  53. The regulated enzymes of the citric acid cycle include _________.





    E)
  54. The enzymes involved in citrate metabolism include all of the following except _______.





    E)
  55. Redox potential is best defined as





    C)
  56. In order to determine the standard voltage of a reaction





    D)
  57. Which of the following reactions is an oxidation reaction?





    C)
  58. Which of the following reactions has an oxidized product?





    E)
  59. In any redox reaction, an electron donor is 





    A)
  60. In a redox reaction, an electron acceptor is





    C)
  61. Each turn of the citric acid cycle produces how many moles of CO2 ?





    E)
  62. Acetyl CoA that is consumed by the citric acid cycle is produced from which of the following biochemical pathways?





    E)
  63. Which of the following is the strongest reducing agent? (The standard reduction potential of each species is provided in parentheses.)





    A)
  64. Which of the following reacts with acetylCoA to form citrate?





    C)
  65. The redox reaction in which succinate is converted to fumarate uses FAD rather than NAD+ because





    D)
  66. Most of the energy released during the electron transport system is used to drive
    ______ synthesis.


    ATP
    ADP
    NADH
    NADPH
    Fatty acids
    A
  67. Which of the following reactions requires GDP




    A)
  68. How many oxidations steps are there in the citric acid cycle?





    B)
  69. The product of the first reaction of the citric acid cycle is ________.


    Acetyl-CoA
    Oxaloacetate
    Pyruvate
    Lactate
    Citrate
    E
  70. Which of the following reactions involves a substrate level phosphorylation?





    C)
  71. The carbon skeletons of which of the following are direct precursors of amino acids? 





    E)
  72. Which of the following is not directly required for the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase?





    D)
  73. Which of the following is a positive effector of isocitrate dehydrogenase?





    A)
  74. Consider the following reaction:

    Pyruvate + NADH  + H+ -- Lactate + NAD+

    The half cell reaction ( with their standard reduction potentials ) are
    Pyruvate + 2H+ + 2e-  Lactate (-0.19V)
    NAD+  + H+  +2e-   NADH (-0.32V)
    What is the reduction potential for the overall reaction?





    D)
  75. The overall reaction catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase is which of the following?





    C)
  76. The citric acid cycle is a component of aerobic respiration. Molecular oxygen





    B)
  77. The main toxic effect of oxygen is due to which of the following?





    E)
  78. The primordial reductive branch of the citric acid cycle was a means of producing which of the following?





    E)
  79. The primordial oxidation branch of the citric acid cycle used which of the following as the ultimate electron acceptor?





    D)
  80. The enzyme which links the two branches of the citric acid cycle is which of the following





    D)
  81. The glyoxylate cycle is a mechanism whereby plants manufacture carbohydrate from ___________.





    E)
  82. In biological systems most energy generating redox reactions involve hydride ion transfer or hydrogen atom transfer using which of the following?





    E)
  83. Which of the following coenzymes function as an acetyl group carrier?





    C)
  84. The first of two molecules of carbon dioxide is released from which of the following compounds in the citric acid cycle?





    A)
  85. The high energy molecule produced in the conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate is which of the following





    E)
  86. Which of the following conversions is an anaplerotic reaction of the citric acid cycle?





    E)
  87. Oxygen is useful for energy generation because 


    It is soluble in the cell membrane 
    It is abundant
    It is a powerful reducing agent
    It is a powerful oxidizing agent
    A, B and D
    E
  88. The most pivotal event in the history of life on earth was


    The development of DNA
    The development of RNA
    Emergence of the water splitting complex in Photosystem II
    Development of photosynthesis
    Adaptation to life on  land
    C
  89.  After the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis the release of oxygen was not immediately followed by the accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere. This was true because


    It was incorporated into organic molecules
    It remained dissolved in water
    It was consumed by oxidizable materials such as iron and ammonia
    A and C
    A, B and C
    c
  90. Obligate anaerobes are


    Organisms that possess antioxidant molecules that detoxify ROS
    Grow only in the absence of oxygen
    Can use oxygen when it is available
    Require oxygen to grow
    Release oxygen
    B
  91.  Facultative anaerobes


    Organisms that possess antioxidant molecules that detoxify ROS
    Grow only in the absence of oxygen
    Can use oxygen when it is available
    Require oxygen to grow
    Release oxygen
    C
  92. In eukaryotes citrate synthetase rate is controlled primarily by


    Availability of oxaloacetate
    Allosteric regulators
    Concentration of maleate
    The NADH/NAD+ ratio
    SuccinylCoA availability
    A
  93. Molecules involved in the conversion of oxidized proteins to their functional reduced suylfhydryl form include all of the following except

    Thioredoxin
    B) NADPH
    C) Catalase
    D) Thioredoxin reductase
    E) None of the above are correct
    C
  94. All of the following are components of the electron transport chain except ______.





    C)
  95. The ETC component that transfers electrons directly to oxygen is __________.





    E)
  96. During the oxidation of NADH there are several steps in which ΔEo’ is sufficient for ATP synthesis. These occur within





    A)
  97. Which of the following molecules inhibits Complex I of the electron transport chain?





    A)
  98. ATP synthesis and mitochondrial electron transport are coupled by





    D)
  99. Evidence supporting the chemiosmotic theory inculdes all of the following except





    C)
  100. Examples of uncouplers include ________.





    E)
  101. In the ATP Synthase the Fo factor





    E)
  102. The maximum P/O ration of FADH2 is





    E)
  103. The control of aerobic respiration by _________ is referred to as respiratory control.





    D)
  104. The first ROS formed during the reduction of oxygen is ________.





    D)
  105. The reaction of Fe+2 with H2O2 results in the production of 





    D)
  106. ROS are generated during




    E)
  107. Glutathione peroxidase





    E)
  108. The NADPH required for the generation of GSH from GSSG in synthesized by the reactions of 





    A)
  109. Glutathione peroxidase requires _____ for full activity





    D)
  110. Examples of antioxidants include all of the following except _________




    E)
  111. One of the mechanisms by which vitamin C protects membrane is by





    E)
  112. The ultimate electron acceptor of the mitochondrial electron transport system is





    C)
  113. The major sources of NADH that reduce Complex I of the ETC include





    E)
  114. In Complex III, electrons are tranferred from UQH2 to 





    D)
  115. ___________ is a metal cofactor of the cytochromes.





    A)
  116. Carbon monoxide inhibits which of the following?





    C)
  117. Which of the following is the best reducing agent?





    A)
  118. The final product of oxidative phosphorylation is ________.





    E)
  119. _____________ are hydrophobic molecules that dissipate ionic gradients.





    B)
  120. The return of ______ into the mitochondrion is coupled to the formation of ______.





    C)
  121. The energy that is captured by the electron transport system is in the form of 





    D)
  122. Reducing power generated in the cytoplasm can be transferred into the mitochondrion by which of the following processes?





    D)
  123. The cytochromes contain which type of prosthetic group?





    B)
  124. The function of complex III is the transfer of electrons from





    D)
  125. Which of the following complexes contain copper?





    A)
  126. Which of the following acts as an allosteric inhibitor of complex IV?





    D)
  127.  Which of the following is not a step in the ATP synthesizing process?





    D)
  128. Nonshivering thermogenesis is regulated by which of the following?





    E)
  129. The primary function of catalase is to 





    C)
  130. How many ATP are generated during the oxidation of one NADH?





    D)
  131. Which of the following would not be classified as a ROS?





    D)
  132. The principal sources of electrons for the electron transport system is (are) which of the following





    E)
  133. The statement aerobic organisms use oxygen to generate energy required to maintain metabolic processes yet they risk damage caused by highly reactive oxygen molecules can be referred to as:

    Oxidation
    Reactive oxygen species
    Oxygen paradox
    Metabolic damage
    Thermodynamic inconsistency
    C
  134. The ultimate waste products of aerobic cellular metabolism of oxygen include

    Pyruvate
    Ethyl alcohol
    Carbon dioxide
    Carbon monoxide
    A or B
    C
  135. According to the solid state model of electron transport electron transfer is efficient because

    Electron transfer is the result of random collisions
    There are short diffusion distances between components for mobile electron carriers
     UQ is abundant
     Cytochrome c diffuses rapidly
    Electron carriers are mobile
    B
  136. How many protons are required to drive the phosphorylation of ADP by the mitochondrial ATP synthase?


    One
    Two
    Three
    Four
    Five
    C
  137. A respiratory burst is initiated when NADPH reacts with oxygen to produce which of the following?

    Superoxide anion
    Water
    Hydrogen peroxide
    Hydroxyl radical
    Peroxide radical
    A
  138. Antimycin A inhibits cyt b in complex III. If this inhibitor is added to a suspension of 
    mitochondria which of the following will increase in concentration?


    NADH
    Reduced cytochrome c1
    Reduced cytochrome c
    NAD+
    A and D
    A
Author
Dorky48
ID
207170
Card Set
Biochem exam 2
Description
Rutgers gen biochem murphy study guide
Updated