Project Management Final Exam Flash Cards.

  1. Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.
  2. One attribute that helps define a project is that a project has a unique purpose.
  3. The 2006 STanish Group survey showed that IT projects success rates had risen from 16 percent in 1994 to 35 percent in 2006.
  4. Winners in project delivery know that strong program managers-referred to as project leaders-are crucial to project success.
  5. Project managers should posses general management knowledge and skills.
  6. New software makes basic tools, such as Gantt charts and network diagrams, inexpensive, easy to create, and available for anyone to update.
  7. Because a project requires resources, often from various areas, many projects cross _______ or other boundries to achieve their unique purpose.
  8. Project _______ management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully.
  9. Project ______ management is an overarching function that affects and is affected by all the other knowledge areas.
  10. What works on one project may not work on another, so it is essential for project managers to continue to develop their knowledge and _______ in management projects.
  11. "All project leaders use a shared road map, focusing on key business aspects of their projects while integrating goals across all parts of the organization" describes the ______ best practice for project delivery.
    Develop a streamlined project delivery process.
  12. In an interview with two chief information officers (CIO's), both men agreed that the most important project management skills seem to depend on ______.
    The uniqueness of the project and the people involved
  13. A(n) _____ focuses on long-term goals and big-picture objectives, while inspiring people to reach those goals.
  14. A(n) _______often deals with the day-to-day details of meeting specific goals.
  15. The Project Management ______, a Web site for people involved in project management, provides an alphabetical directory of more than 300 project management software solutions.
  16. _______ tools are often recommended for small projects and single users.
  17. The "Chaos" study found that more than ____________ percent of information technology projects were cancelled before completion.
  18. _____________ include people, hardware, software, or other assets.
  19. The question, "What unique product or service does the customer or sponsor expect from the project?" is related to the __________ of the project.
  20. The ____________ of project mangement includes quality along with scope, time, and cost.
    Quadruple Constant
  21. Project management tools and ____________ assist project managers and their teams in carrying out work in all nine knowledge areas.
  22. Gantt charts, project network diagrams, critcal path analysis, crashing, fast tracking, and schedule performance measurements are examples of tools and techniques for ___________-.
    Time Management
  23. ______________ refers to the process in which organizations group and mange projects and programs as a portfolio of investments that contribute to the entire enterprise's success.
    Project Portfolio Manager
  24. _________ skills include effective communication, influencing the organization to get things done, leadership, motivation, negotiation, conflict management, and problem solving.
  25. A(n) _______________ chart is a standard format for displaying project schedule information.
  26. ____________ tools are generally licensed on a per-user basis.
  27. CHAPTER 2:
  28. Using a systems approach is critical to successful project management.
  29. Although it is easier to focus on the immediate and sometimes narrow concerns of a particular project, project managers and other staff must keep in mind the effects of any project on the interests and needs of the entire system or organization.
  30. Most colleges and universities have very strong functional organizations.
  31. An organization that uses a project organizational structure earns their revenue primarily from performing projects for other groups under contract.
  32. Project mangers in matrix organizations have staff from various functional areas working on their projects
  33. Project organizations may miss economies of scale available through the pooling of requests for materials with other projects.
  34. The same organization can have different subcultures.
  35. The best way to kill a project is to withhold the required money, human resources, and visibility for the project
  36. If a project manager does not submit a potential project in the proper format, it could be rejected.
  37. The Adaptive Software Development (ASD) life cycle model assumes that software development  follows an adaptive approach because the requirements cannot be clearly expressed early in the life cycle.
  38. Since the organization usually commits more money as a project continues, a management review should occur after each phase to evaluate progress, potential success, and continued compatibility with organizational goals
  39. It is rare for technical specialists or project managers  to remain with the same company for a long time.
  40. COBOL programmers cannot be of much help on a Java Project.
  41. _________ describes a holistic view of carrying out projects within the context of the organization.
    Systems thinking
  42. _______ is a problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system  dividing it into its components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints and needs/.
    System analysis
  43. The _____ focuses on producing harmony between the needs of the organization and the needs of the people.
    Human Resources frame
  44. The _______ assumes that organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups
    Political frame
  45. A ____ is the hierarchy most people think of when picturing an organizational chart.
    functional organizational structure
  46. In a ______, program managers report to the CEO.
    Project organizational structure
  47. Project managers have the most authority in a pure ________.
    Project organizational structure
  48. Project managers have the least amount of authority in a pure _______.
    Functional organizational structure
  49. In a ________ matrix organizational structure, the project manager controls the project budget and has moderate to high authority.
  50. ________ is a set of shared assumptions, values, and behaviors that characterize the functioning of an organization.
    Organizational culture
  51. The ______ characteristic of organizational culture describes the degree to which management's decisions take into account the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
    People focus
  52. ________ refers to the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment.
    Open-Systems Focus
  53. Many companies have realized that information technology is integral to their business and have created a vice president or equivalent-level position for the head of information technology, often called the ________.
  54. In early phases of a project life cycle, resources needs are usually  _____ and the level of uncertainty is ___________.
  55. A preliminary or rough cost estimate is developed in the ________ phase, and an overview of the work involved is created.
  56. In the ________ phase, the project team creates more detailed project plans, a more accurate cost estimate, and a more thorough WBS.
  57. The ______ model assumes that requirements will remain stable after they are defined.
    Waterfall life cycle
  58. The _______ model provides for progressive development of operational software, with each release providing added capabilities.
    Incremental build life Cycle
  59. The _____ model requires heavy user involvement, and developers use a model to generate functional requirements and physical design specifications simultaneously.
    Prototyping life cycle
  60. The _____ model uses an approach in which developers work with an evolving prototype.
    RAD life cycle
  61. The three spheres of systems management are business, organization, and ____________.
  62. When project managers use a(n) ____________ they are better able to make decisions that address the needs of the entire organization.
    Systems approach
  63. A major element of good practice concerns ____________, which addresses the authority and control for key IT activities in organizations, including IT infrastructure, IT use, and project management.
    IT Governance
  64. A(n) _____________________ is a framework for describing the phases involved in developing information systems.
    SDLC (Systems development life cycle)
  65. The term ______________ has become popular to describe new approaches that focus on close collaboration between programming teams and business experts.
    Agile software development
  66. CHAPTER 3
  67. Initiating processes take place during each phase of a of a project.
  68. Monitoring and controlling processes overlap all of the other project management process groups.
  69. An organization should put considerable thought into project selection to ensure that it initiates the right kinds of projects for the right reasons.
  70. Human resource issues often occur during project execution, especially conflicts.
  71. The process of acquiring a project team falls under the Project Human Resource Management knowledge area.
  72. In addition to progress reports, an important tool for monitoring and controlling a project is using project management software.
  73. Projects involve _____ project management process groups.
  74. Examples of _______ include acquiring and developing the project team, performing quality assurance, distributing information, managing stakeholder expectations, and conducting procurement.
    Executing Process
  75. The project integration management knowledge area maps to the _________ process group through the activities of developing project charters.
  76. The project scope management knowledge area maps to the ____________ process group through the activities of scope verification and scope control.
    Monitoring and controlling
  77. ____________ is a planning process falling under the Project Scope Management knowledge area.
    Create WBS
  78. ____________ is a monitoring and controlling process.
    Integrated change control.
  79. The project cost management knowledge area maps to the _____ process group through the activities of estimating costs and budget determination.
  80. The project procurement management knowledge area maps to the ______ process group through the activities conducting procurement.
  81. ________ should  serve as the foundation for deciding which projects to pursue.
    Strategic Planning
  82. A __________ is a document that includes details related to the identified project stakeholders.
    Stakeholder Register
  83. A ________ is an approach to help increase the support of stakeholders throughout the project.
    Stakeholder Management Strategy
  84. The ______ is often held after the business case and project charter are completed, but it could be held sooner, as needed. 
    Kick-Off Meeting
  85. It is good practice to focus on the _____________ of meetings.
  86. _____________ the project involves taking the actions necessary to ensure that activities in the project plan are completed.
  87. The ______________ process involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the final products and services and bribing the project, or project phase, to an orderly end.
  88. The _______________ plan coordinates and encompasses information from all other plans.
    Project Management
  89. Each of the five project management ___________ is characterized by the completion of certain tasks.
    Process Groups
  90. The ideal outcome of the monitoring and ____________ process group is to complete a project successfully by delivering the agreed-upon project within time, cost, and quality constraints.
  91. ____________ is often the most difficult and unappreciated process in project management.
  92. A(n) _________________ is the output of risk identification planning.
    Risk Register
  93. CHAPTER 4
  94. The number of interfaces can increase exponentially as the number of people involved in a project increases.
  95. As projects progress, the organization must reevaluate the need, funding, and will for each project to determine if the project should be continued, redefined, or terminated.
  96. Strategic planning involves determining long-term objectives by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of an organization, studying opportunities and threats in the business environment, predicting future trends, and projecting the need for new products and services
  97. Many problems and directives must be resolved quickly.
  98. An annual discount factor is a multiplier for each year based on the discount rate and year.
  99. Payback period is the amount of time it will take to recoup, in the form of net cash inflows, the total dollars invested in a project.
  100. Some people might use a contract in place of a charter.
  101. Project management plans document project planning assumptions and decisions regarding choices.
  102. The key deliverables section of the project management plan should describe the quality expectations of the product deliverables.
  103. Many organizations have found that large information technology projects require experienced general mangers who understand the business and application area of the technology, not the technology itself.
  104. All projects can benefit from using some type of project management information system to coordinate and communicate project information.
  105. ___________ involves coordinating all planning efforts to create a consistent, coherent document.
    Developing the project management plan
  106. The outputs of ______ include change request status updates, project management plan updates, and project document updates.
    Performing integrated change control
  107. In the ________ stage, organizations tie information technology strategy to mission and vision of organization and identify key business areas.
    Information Technology Strategy Planning
  108. ________ Are new requirements imposed by management, government, or some external influence.
  109. The first step in determining the NPV is to __________.
    Determine the estimated costs and benefits for the life of the project and the products it produces
  110. In the mathematical formula for determining the NPV, the variable n is ______.
    the last year of the cash flow
  111. You can determine a project's _______ by finding what discount rate results in an NPV of zero for the project.
    internal rate of return (IRR)
  112. In a weighted scoring model, the sum of all of the criteria's weights must total _____ percent.
  113. A(n) _______ is a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction on the project's objectives and management.
    Project Charter
  114. A(n) _________ is a methodology that converts an organization's value drivers, such as customer service, innovation, operational efficiency, and financial performance, to a series of defined metrics.
    Balanced scorecard
  115. ________ support contributes the most to successful information technology projects.
  116. The _____ section of the project management plan describes specific  methodologies a project might use and explains how to document information.
    Technical Processes
  117. The project schedule information section of the project management plan might include __________.
    A Detailed Schedule
  118. The majority of time on a project is usually spent on _________, as is most of the project's budget.
  119. On large projects, many project managers say that _____ percent of the job is communicating and managing charges.
  120. ________ should result in improvements in project performance.
    Corrective actions
  121. ________ provide information on how project execution is going.
    Performance reports
  122. Which of the following is an important input to the integrated change control process?
    Work performance information
  123. A(n) __________ is a formal, documented process that describes when and how official project documents may be changed.
    Change control System
  124. ______________ ensures that the descriptions of the project's products are correct and complete.
    Configuration Management
  125. __________________ involves identifying and managing the points of interaction between various elements of the project.
    Interface Management
  126. ______________ are undesirable situations that prevent an organization from achieving it's goals.
  127. A(n) ___________________ is the rate used in discounting future cash flow.
    Discount Rate
  128. _________________ is the result of subtracting the project costs from the benefits and then dividing by the costs.
    Return on Investment (ROI)
  129. You can use the ______________ function in Excel to determine the IRR quickly.
    Goal Seek
  130. Enterprise _______________ include relevant government or industry standards, the organization's infrastructure, and marketplace conditions.
    Environmental Factors
  131. A project manager usually organizes the project work into several work packages using a(n) ___________ .
    Work breakdown structure (WBS)
  132. _________________ project work includes collecting, measuring and disseminating performance information.
  133. A(n) _______________ is the approved project management plan plus approved changes.
  134. _______________________ involves identifying  evaluating, and managing changes throughout the project life cycle.
    Integrated Change Control
  135. CHAPTER 5
  136. Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them
  137. Many information technology projects also require detailed functional and design specifications for developing software, which also should be referenced in the detailed scope statement.
  138. The project scope statement should reference supporting documents, such as product specifications that will affect what products are produced or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect how products or services are produced.
  139. The project scope statement, stakeholder requirements documentation  and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS.
  140. A work package represents the level of work that the project manager monitors and controls.
  141. You can only enter duration estimates for work packages.
  142. The tasks in a WBS do not have to be developed as a sequential list of steps.
  143. Many organizations provide guidelines and templates for developing WBS's.
  144. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.
  145. Lack of user input leads to problems with managing scope creep and controlling change.
  146. There are _______ main processes in project scope management.
  147. ________ involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them.
    Collecting Requirements
  148. __________ involves reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved.
    Defining Scope
  149. _______________ involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables and during this phase the key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deilverables.
    Verifying Scope
  150. The main outputs of _______ are accepted deliverables and change requests.
    Verifying Scope
  151. _______ involves controlling changes to the project scope throughout the life of the project, which is a challenge on many information technology projects.
    Controlling Scope
  152. Good _________ is very important to project success because it helps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and resource estimates, it defines a baseline for performance measurement and project control, and it aids in communicating clear work responsibilities.
    Scope Definintion
  153. Of the following constraints, it is most difficult to describe, agree upon, and meet the ______ goal of many projects.
  154. In the WBS, the name of the entire project is the top box, called Level ________.
  155. In the WBS, the main groupings for the work are listen in Level __________.
  156. Many people confuse tasks on a WBS with ___________.
  157. The ____________ tasks vary the most from project to project.
  158. In the ________, you use a similar project's WBS as a starting point.
    Analogy Approach
  159. The ______ approach involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail.
  160. The ________ approach is best suited to project managers who have vast technical insight and a big picture perspective.
  161. Project managers often use the _____ approach for projects that represent entirely new systems or approaches to doing a job or to help create buy-in and synergy with a project team.
  162. After discovering WBS items and structure using the _________ technique, you could then translate the information into chart or tabular form.
    Mind Mapping
  163. The goal of _______ is to influence the factors that cause scope changes, assure changes are processed according to procedures developed as part of integrated change control, and manage changes when they occur.
    Scope Control
  164. ________ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them.
    Use Case Modeling
  165. __________ uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders-the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on---- to jointly define and design information systems.
  166. Creating __________ involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components.
  167. The project scope statement should reference _________, such as products specifications that will affect what products are produced or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect how products or services are produced.
    Supporting Documents
  168. A(n) ________ project scope statement is an important document for developing and confirming a common understanding of the project scope.
  169. Some project management experts believe that work should not be done on a project if it is not included in the _____________.
  170. PMI uses the term "_________" to describe each level of work in the WBS.
  171. In the ___________ approach, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible.
  172. _______________ can be used for developing WBSs using the top-down or bottom-up approach.
  173. A(n) _____________ is a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item.
    WBS Dictionary
  174. The main tool for performing scope verification is _______________.
  175. _________ involves controlling changes to the project scope.
    Scope Control
  176. CHAPTER 6
  177. Schedule performance can be estimated by subtracting the original time estimate from how long it really took to complete the project.
  178. Individual work styles and cultural differences may cause schedule conflicts.
  179. After defining project activities, the next step in project time management is sequencing them or determining their dependencies.
  180. Even tough the delivery of new hardware may not be in the scope of a project, you should add an external dependency to it if required project activities depend on that delivery.
  181. The arrows in a network diagram represent the activity sequencing or relationships between task.
  182. It is important that the people who help determine what resources are necessary include people who have experience and expertise in similar projects and with the organization performing the project.
  183. In a Gantt chart created in Microsoft Project, a black diamond symbol represents a milestone.
  184. Many projects, especially in information technology, have very unrealistic schedule expectations.
  185. There are _______- main processes involved in project time management.
  186. _________ involves identifying the specific activities that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to produce the project deliverables.
    Defining Activities
  187. The main outputs of the _____ process are an activity list, activity attributes, and milestone list.
    Defining Activities
  188. _________ involves analyzing activity sequences, activity resource estimates, and activity duration estimates to create the project schedule.
    Developing the Schedule
  189. _______ involves controlling and managing changes to the project schedule.
    Controlling the schedule
  190. Outputs from _____ include work performance  measurements, organizational process assets updates, change requests, project management plan updates, and project document updates.
    Controlling the Schedule
  191. The ____ provide(s) schedule-related information about each activity, such as predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, constraints  imposed dates, and assumptions related to the activity.
    Activity Attirbutes
  192. The goal of ______ is to ensure that the project teams has complete understanding of the all the work they must do as part of the project scope so they can start scheduling the work.
    Defining Activities
  193. ______ dependencies are sometimes referred to as soft logic and should be used with care since they may limit later scheduling options
  194. ______ dependencies involve relationships between project and non-project activities.
  195. ______ occur when two or more activities follow a single node.
  196. On a network diagram, all arrowheads should face towards the _____.
  197. The ______ is a network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities.
  198. The activity list, activity attributes, activity resource requirements, resource calanders, project scope statement, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets all include information that affect __________
    Duration Estimates
  199. _______ is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration.
    Critical Path Analysis
  200. _________ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following activities.
    Free Slack
  201. _______ involves doing activities in parallel that you would normally do in sequence.
    Fast Tracking
  202. _______ is a method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date.
    Critical Chain Scheduling
  203. Project management software highlights the critical path in _______ on a network diagram.
  204. ______________ is the one variable in project scheduling that has the least amount of flexibility.
  205. ____________ involves the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project.
    Project Time Management
  206. The _______ is a tabulation of activities to be included on a project schedule.
    Activity List
  207. In the activity definition process, the project team should review the ___________ and activity attributes with project stakeholders before moving to the next step in project schedule management.
    Activity List
  208. A(n) ______ is a schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing of, project activities.
    Network Diagram
  209. In a(n) _____________ relationship, the "from" activity must start before the "to" activity can be finished.
  210. A(n) ___________ Gantt chart compares planed and actual project schedule information.
  211. A white diamond on the Tracking Gantt chart represents a(n) ___________.
    Slipped Milestone
  212. ______________ occurs when a resource works on more than one task at a time.
  213. Managers like to see progress made on project approximately each __________.
  214. Chapter 7
  215. Any new technology or business process is unetested and has inherent risks.
  216. Project managers must conduct cash flow analysis to determine net present value.
  217. ROM estimates can be referred to as a ballpark estimate, a guesstimate, a swag, or a broad guage.
  218. The cost management plan is part of the overall project management plan.
  219. Every cost estimate is unique.
  220. Most organizations have a well-established process for preparing budgets.
  221. Cost budgeting provides information for project funding requirements.
  222. Cost budgeting provides information for project funding requirements.
  223. The formulas for variances and indexes start with EV, the earned value.
  224. Three separeate surveys of software project cost overruns found that the average cost overrun for all of the projects in their survey samples (not just unsuccessful projects) were ______ percent.
  225. ___________ is the ratio of revenues to profits.
    Profit Margin
  226. _______, with assistance from finacial experts in their oraganizations, should create estimates of the costs and benefits of the project for it's entire life cycle.
    Project Managers
  227. Since organizations depend on reiable information technology, there are also huge costs associated with ____________.
  228. _______ is a method for determing the estimated annual costs and benefits for a project and the resulting annual cash flow.
    Cash Flow Analysis
  229. ____________ should be forgotten.
    Sunk Costs
  230. _______ allow for future situations that may be partially planned for.
    Contingency Reserves
  231. _______ allow for future situations that are unpredicatable.
    Management reserves.
  232. A ___________ is used for making many purchasing decisions for which accurate estimates are required and for estimating final project costs.
    Definitive Estimate
  233. ______ involve estimating indicidual work items or activities and summing them to get a project total.
    Bottom-up Estimates
  234. If the cost estimate will be the basis for contract awards and performance reporting, it should be a _____ and as accurate as possible.
    Definitive Estimate
  235. The project management plan, project funding requirements, work performance data, and organizational process assests are inputs for the process of _______.
    Controlling costs
  236. The _____ is that protion of the approved total cost estimate planned to be spent on an activity during a given period.
  237. The _____ is the ratio of actual work completed to the percentage of work planned to have been completed at any given time during th elife of the project of activity.
  238. The ______ is an estimate of the value of the physical work actually completed.
  239. The _____ is the total direct and indirect costs incurred in accomplishing work on an activity during a given period.
  240. ______ is the earned value minus the actual cost.
  241. ______ is the earned value minus the planned value.
  242. The ______ is the ratio of earned value to planned value and can be used to estimate the projected time to complete the project.
  243. Using simplified percentage complete amounts for a one-year project with weekly reporting and an average task or work packet size of one week, you can expect about a(n) __________ percent error rate.
  244. The main outputs of the _____________ process are a cost performance baseline, project funding requirements, and project document updates.
    Cost Budgeting
  245. __________ allows you to see a big-picture view of the cost of a project throughout its life cycle.
    Life-Cycle costing
  246. _________ considers the total cost of owenership, or development plus support costs, for a project.
    life-cycle costing
  247. _______________ costs or benefits are costs or benefits that are difficult to measure in monetary terms.
  248. A(n) ______________ is as document that describes how the organization will manage cost variances on the project.
    Cost Management Plan
  249. It is helpful to analyze the total doallar value as well as the percentage of the total amount of reach major _______________ category.
  250. It's important for the team to ________________ assumptions they made when developing the cost baseline and have several experts review it.
  251. A(n) _______________ is the original project plan plus approved changes.
  252. In general, ______________  numbers for cost and schedule variance indicate problems in those ares.
  253. _______________ and SPI less than one or less than 100 percent indicate problems
    Cost Performance Index
  254. Chapter 8.
  255. Most people simply accept poor quality from many information technology products.
  256. The majority of people in the United States use the Internet.
  257. Quality planning implies the ability to anticipate situations and prepare actions that bring about the desired outcome.
  258. Project managers are ultimately responsible for quality management on their projects.
  259. Minimizing defects does not matter if an organization is making a product that no one wants to buy.
  260. Modern quality management requires customer satisfaction, prefers prevention to insepction, and recognizes management responsibility for quality.
  261. ISO 9000 provids minimum requirements needed for an orgainization to meet is quality certification standards.
  262. ___________ means the project's processes and products meet written specifications.
    Conformance to Requirements
  263. Project quality management involves ______ main processes.
  264. __________ includes identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy those standards.
    Planning Quality
  265. _________ involves periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.
    Performing Quality Assurance
  266. _______ is the degree to which a system performs its intended function
  267. ___________ is the ability of a product or service to perform as expected under normal conditions.
  268. _________ addresses the ease of performing maintenance on a product.
  269. ___________ is action taken to bring rejected items into compliance with product requirements or specifications or other stakeholder expectations
  270. The _____ states that if seven data points in a row are all below the mean, above the mean, or are all increasing or decreasing, then the process needs to be examined for non-random problems.
    Seven Run Rule
  271. A certaininty factor of 1.960 is used for _____ percent desired certainty.
  272. _____ is a comprehensive and flexible system for achieving , sustaining and maximizing business sucesss.
    Six Sigma
  273. Six Sigma's target for perfection is the achievement of no more than ______ defects, errors, or mistakes per million opportunities.
  274. Important tools used in the ______ phase of the DMAIC process include a project charter, a description of customer requirements, process maps, and Voice of the Customer (VOC) data.
  275. A ______ is a bell-shaped curve that is symmetrical regarding the average value of the population (the data being analyzed).
    Normal Distribution
  276. A(n) _________ is done to test each individual component (often a program) to ensure that it is as defect-free as possible.
    Unit Test
  277. _____ is an independent test performed by end users prior to accepting the delivered system.
    User Acceptance Testing
  278. One of ______ ten steps states that an organization should build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement.
  279. Juran's final step to quality improvement is __________.
    Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company.
  280. ___________, a quality system standard developed by ISO, is a three-part, continuous cycle of planning, controlling and documenting quality in an organization.
    ISO 15504
  281. __________ is a cost that relates to all errors not detected and not corrected before delivery to the customer.
    External Failure Cost
  282. The purpose of __________ is to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
    Project quality management
  283. Performing ____________ involves periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.
    Quality Assurance
  284. ____________ is a quality planning technique that helps identify which variables have the most influence on the overall outcome of a process.
    Design of Experiments.
  285. Top management and _____________ can have the greatest impact on the quality of projects by doing a good job of quality assurance.
    Project Managers
  286. A(n) _________ is a structured review of specific quality management activities that help identify lessons learned that could improve performance on current or future projects.
    Quality Audit
  287. Sample size = 0.25 * (___________ /Acceptable error)²
    Certainty Factor
  288. Projects that use Six Sigma principles to quality control normally follow a five-phase improvement process called _________.
  289. ___________ measures how much variation exists in a distribution of data.
    Standard Deviation
  290. Watts S. Humphrey defines a(n) ______________ as anything that must be changed before delivery of the program.
    Software Defect
  291. ____________ design methods focus on eliminating defects by substituting scientific inquiry for trial-and-error methods.
  292. Most project managers agree that managing human resources effectively is one of the toughest challenges they face.
  293. As the job market changes, people should upgrade their skills to remain marketable and flexible.
  294. Many highly qualified information technology workers lost their jobs in the past few years.
  295. Maslow's hierarchy of needs states that people's behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs.
  296. Project managers often do not have control over project staff who report to them.
  297. A staffing management plan describes when and how people will be added to and taken off the project team.
  298. If a certain resource is over-allocated  the project manager can change the schedule to remove resource over-allocation.
  299. Resource leveling results in fewer problems for project personnel and account departments.
  300. Project managers often recommend that people take specific training courses to improve individual and team development.
  301. The first dimension of psychological type in the MBTI signifies whether people draw their energy from other people (extroverts) or from inside themselves (introverts).
  302. ______ involves getting the needed personnel assigned to and working on the project.
    Acquiring the project team
  303. Key outputs of ______ process are project staff assignments, resource calendars, and project management plan updates.
    Acquiring the project team
  304. ______ involves building individual and group skills to enhance project performance.
    Developing the project team
  305. ________ involves tracking team member performance, motivating team members, providing feedback, resolving issues and conflicts, and coordinating changes to help enhance project performance.
    Managing the Project Team
  306. _______ is best known for developing a hierarchy of needs.
    Abraham Maslow
  307. _______ is at the top of Maslow's structure.
  308. The bottom four needs in Maslow's structure are referred to as _____ needs.
  309. _______ is best known for distinguishing between motivational factors and hygiene factors when considering motivation in work settings.
    Frederick Herzberg
  310. PEople with a high need for ______ seek to excel and tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations to improve their chances for achieving something worthwhile.
  311. People with a high need for _______ desire harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by others.
  312. ______ is best known for developing Theory X and Theory Y.
    Douglas McGregor
  313. ______ emphasizes things such as job rotation, broadening of skills, generalization versus specialization, and the need for continuous training of workers.
    Theory Z
  314. According to Thamhain and Wilemon, _______ is the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders.
  315. According to Thamhain and Wilemon, ______ is the ability to improve a worker's position.
  316. ______ fill in for project managers in their absence and assist them as needed.
    Deputy Project Managers
  317. A(n) _______ is a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time.
    Resource Historgram
  318. ______ refers to the amount of individual resources an existing schedule requires during specific time periods.
    Resource Loading
  319. _______ is a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks.
    Resource Leveling
  320. Psychologist David Merril describes ______ as reactive and task-oriented.
  321. Psychologist David Merril describes _______ as reactive and people-oriented.
  322. If organizations want to be successful at implementing information technology projects, they need to understand the importance of project _______ and take actions to make effective use of people.
    Human Resource
  323. Only after meeting ______ needs can individuals act upon growth needs.
  324. Herzberg called factors that cause job satisfaction ________.
  325. Managers who believe in McGregor's ________ assume that individuals do not inherently dislike work, but consider it as natural as play or rest.
    Theory Y
  326. __________ is getting people to do things based on a position of authority.
    Legitimate Power
  327. __________ are responsible for managing the sub-projects into which a large project might be divided.
    Sub Project Managers
  328. A(n) __________ or draft contract often provides the basis for defining and finalizing work requirements.
    Request for Proposal (RFP)
  329. A(n) ________ is a specific type of organizational chart that shows which organizational units are responsible for which work items.
    Organizational Breakdown Structure  (ORB)
  330. Some organizations use ______________ to show Responsibility, Accountability, Consultation, and Informed roles for project stakeholders.
    RACI Charts
  331. _______ means more resources than are available are assigned to perform work at a given time.
  332. CHAPTER 10
  333. The communications management plan will vary with the needs of the project.
  334. Consistent communication helps organizations improve project communications, especially for programs composed of multiple projects.
  335. Many WBS's include a section for project communications to ensure that reporting key information is a project deliverable.
  336. Adding more people to a project that is falling behind schedule often causes more setbacks because of the increased complexity of communications.
  337. Communication badly exponentially increases the possibility of making fatal mistakes.
  338. Project managers should lead their teams in developing norms for dealing with various types of conflicts that might arise on their projects.
  339. When using the confrontation mode, project managers,directly face a conflict using a problem-solving approach that allows affected parties to work through their disagreements.
  340. Emotional conflict, which stems from personality clashes and misunderstandings, often depresses team performance.
  341. Not understanding how to communicate effectively with other cultures and people of diverse backgrounds hurts projects and businesses.
  342. The output of the ______ process is communications management plan.
    Planning Communications
  343. Having _____ review and approve all stakeholder communications analysis will ensure that the information is correct and useful.
  344. Information regarding the content of essential project communications comes from the _____.
    Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  345. Often, many non-technical professionals-from colleagues to managers-prefer to _______ about project information to try to find pertinent information.
    Have a Two-Way conversation
  346. ______ are often more effective, particularly for sensitive information.
    Short Face-To-Face Meetings
  347. Since information technology projects often require a lot of coordination, it is a good idea to have _____ meetings.
    Short, Frequent
  348. According to the guidelines provided by Practical Communications, Inc, a(n) ______ is the only method that is "Excellent" for encouraging creative thinking.
  349. According to the guidelines provided by Practical Communications, Inc, a(n) _____ is the most appropriate method for giving complex instructions.
  350. Many users prefer ____ to learn how to use a new system.
    Face-To-Face Conversations
  351. Four people have ____ communications channel(s).
  352. Project sponsors can usually rank scope, time and cost goals in order of importance in a(n) ______.
    Expectations Management Matrix
  353. ______ describe where the project stands at a specific point in time.
    Status Reports
  354. ______ describe what the project team has accomplished during a certain period.
    Progress Reports
  355. When using the _____, the project manager deemphasizes or avoids areas of differences and emphasizes areas of agreement.
    Smoothing Mode
  356. With the _____, project managers use the give-and-take approach to resolving conflicts.
    Compromise Mode
  357. When using the _____, project managers exert their viewpoint at the potential expense of another viewpoint.
    Forcing Mode
  358. When using the _____, project managers retreat or withdraw from an actual or potential disagreement.
    Withdrawal Mode
  359. Research indicates that project managers favor using ______ for conflict resolution over the other four modes.
  360. According to the guideline governing _____, many meetings are most effective with the minimum number of participants possible.
    Determining Who should attend the meeting
  361. According the guideline governing __________, designate someone to take minutes and send the minutes out soon after the meeting.
    Running the meeting professionally
  362. The outputs of the ______ process are performance reports, organizational process assets, updates and change requests.
    Reporting Performance
  363. Many experts believe that the difference between good project managers and excellent project managers is their ability to nurture relationships and use empathic ______ skills.
  364. It is important to put information in context, especially if it is _______ news.
  365. The ____________ includes a list of measures of success as well as priorities, expectations and guidelines related to each measure.
    Expectation Management Matrix
  366. The _______ statement clearly defines mandatory requirements and optional requirements.
  367. ________ keeps stakeholders informed about how resources are being used to achieve project objectives.
    Performance Reporting
  368. Team leaders often create consolidated ______ based on the information received from team members.
    Progress Reports
  369. An important technique for performance reporting is the _______ review meeting.
  370. Project team members may become stagnant or develop ________ conformance to the values or ethical standards of a group- if there are no conflicting viewpoints on various aspects of a project
  371. Some professionals refuse to attend meetings if they do not have a(n) _____ ahead of time.
  372. Chapter 11
  373. Risk management is a frequently overlooked aspect of project management.`
  374. The cost for risk management should not exceed the potential benefits.
  375. You can break down the technology risk category into hardware, software, and network technology.
  376. The Delphi technique is a systematic, interactive forecasting procedure based on independent and anonymous input regarding future events.
  377. A probability/impact matrix or chart lists the relative probability of a risk occurring on one side of a matrix or axis on a chart and the relative impact of the risk occurring on the other.
  378. The Microsoft Solution Framework (MSF) includes a risk management model that includes developing and monitoring a top-ten master list of risks.
  379. The Monte Carlo analysis can predict the probability of finishing by a certain date or the probability that the cost will be equal to or less than a certain value.
  380. Increasing the project manager's authority is a strategy for mitigating technical and cost risks.
  381. Selecting the most experienced project manager is recommended for reducing schedule risks.
  382. Project risk management does not stop with the initial risk analysis.
  383. William Ibbs and Young H. Kwak's study revealed that the _______ industry had the lowest level of project management maturity in the area of quality mangement.
    Information Systems
  384. KLCI Research Group's 2001 survey revealed that ____ percent of the participants said they had procedures in place to identify and assess risk.
  385. A ____ person achieves a balance between risk and payoff.
  386. There are _____ major processes involved in risk management.
  387. _____ involves deciding how to approach and plan the risk management activities for the project.
    Planning Risk Management
  388. _______ involves determining which risks are likely to affect a project and documenting the characteristics of each.
    Performing quantitative risk analysis
  389. ________ involves monitoring identified and residual risks, identifying new risks, carrying out risk response plans, and evaluating the effectiveness of risk strategies throughout the life of the project.
    Monitoring and Controlling Risk
  390. According to the Stanish Group's success potential scoring sheet, _____ has the highest relative importance.
    User Involvement
  391. "Is there a project champion?" applies to which risk category? ___________
    People Risk
  392. In a risk breakdown structure, competitors, suppliers, and cash flow are categories that fall under _____ risk.
  393. Poor conflict management, poor project organization and definition of responsibilities, and absence of leadership are risk conditions associated with the _____ project management knowledge area.
    Human Resources
  394. Unenforceable conditions or contract clauses, and adversarial relations are risk conditions associated with the _______ project management knowledge area.
  395. ______ is a fact-finding technique for collecting information in face-to-face, phone, e-mail, or instant-messaging discussions.
  396. A(n) _____________ represents decision problems by displaying essential elements, including decisions, uncertainties  causality, and objectives, and how they influence each other.
    Influence Diagram
  397. A(n) ___________ is a diagramming analysis technique used to help select the best course of action in situations in which future outcomes are uncertain.
    Decision Tree
  398. What is the first step in Monte Carlo analysis?
    Assess the range for the variables being considered.
  399. ________ involves eliminating a specific threat, usually by eliminating its causes.
    Risk Avoidance
  400. _________ involves doing whatever you can to make sure the positive risk happens.
    Risk Exploitation
  401. _________ risks are a direct result of implementing a risk response.
  402. Given that all projects involves __________ that can have negative or positive outcomes, the question is how to decide which projects to pursue and how to identify and manage project risk throughout a project's life cycle.
  403. The idea of striving to balance risks and opportunities suggests that different organizations and people have different _______ for risk.
  404. The main output of the _______ process is the start of a risk register.
    Identifying Risks
  405. A(n) ____________ is a hierarchy of potential risk categories for a project.
    Risk Breakdown Structure
  406. Inadequate planning, poor resource allocation, poor integration management, and lack of post-project review are risk conditions associated with the ________ project management knowledge area
  407. ______________ is a technique by which a group attempts to generate ideas or find a solution for a specific problem by amassing ideas spontaneously and without judgement.
  408. The basic concept of the ______________ is to derive a consensus among a panel of experts who make predictions about future developments.
    Delphi Techology
  409. A(n) _______ is a list of risks that are low priority, but are still identified as potential risks.
  410. ________ is the product of a risk event probability and the risk event's monetary value.
  411. Risk ________ involves accepting the consequences should a risk occur.
  412. Chapter 12
  413. The cost savings and use of offshore resources lower inflation, increase productivity, and lower interest rates.
  414. Many companies are realizing that they can use offshore outsourcing and create more jobs at home.
  415. When an organization outsources work, it often does not have as much control over those aspects of projects that suppliers carry out.
  416. If there is no need to buy any products or services from outside the organization, then there is no need to perform any of the other procurement management processes.
  417. Make-or-buy analysis involves estimating the internal costs of providing a product or service and comparing that estimate to the cost of outsourcing.
  418. Any type of contract should include specific clauses that take into account issues unique to the project.
  419. Some termination clauses state that the buyer can terminate a contract for any reason and give the supplier only 24 hours' notice.
  420. Contents of the procurement management plan will vary with project needs.
  421. It is customary to have contract negotiations during the source selection process.
  422. The term "e-procurement" often describes various procurement functions that are now done electronically.
  423. An October 2005 Information Technology Association of America (ITAA)-sponsored report stated that spending for global sources of computer software and services is expected to grow at a compound annual rate of about _________  percent.
  424. An October 2005 Information Technology Association of America (ITAA)-sponsored report stated that total savings from offshore resources during the 2005-2010 period are estimated to grow from $8.7 billion to ________.
    $20.4 Billion
  425. "Outsourcing suppliers are often able to use economies of scale that may not be available to the client alone, especially for hardware and software" refers to the _________ benefit of outsourcing.
    Reduce both fixed and recurrent costs.
  426. "Most organizations are not in business to provide informration technology services, yet many have spent valuable time and resources on information technology functions when they should have focused on core competencies such as marketing, customer services, and new product design." refers to the ______ benefit of outsourcing.
    Allow the client organization to focus on it's core business
  427. "Outsourcing to provide extra staff during periods of peak workloads can be much more economical than trying to staff entire projects with internal resources." refers to the _______ benefit.
    Provide Flexibility
  428. There are _____ main processes of project management.
  429. ________ involves determining what to procure, when and how.
    Planning procurements
  430. ___________ involves obtaining seller responses, selecting sellers, and awarding contracts.
    Conducting Procurements
  431. ________ involves managing relationships with sellers, monitoring contract performance, and making changes as needed.
    Administering procurements
  432. ______ involves completion and settlement of each contract, including resolution of any open items.
    Closing Procurements
  433. For many projects, properly _______ some information technology functions can be a great investment.
  434. ______ contracts involves a fixed total price for a well-defined product or service.
    Lump Sum
  435. With a(n) _______ contract, the buyer pays the supplier for allowable performance costs along with a predetermined fee and incentive bonus.
  436. With a(n) ______ contract, the buyer pays the supplier for allowable performance costs along with a predetermined percentage based on total costs.
  437. From the supplier's perspective, there is the least risk with a(n) ______ contract
  438. The ______ is a description of the work required for the procurement.
  439. Many organizations use ______ and templates to generate SOWs.
  440. A(n) _______ is a document used to solicit quotes or bids from prospective suppliers.
  441. ____________ change orders are oral or written acts or omissions by someone with actual or apparent authority that can be construed to have the same effect as written change order.
  442. ____________________ includes the processes required to acquire goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization,.
  443. A(n) ___________ decision is one in which an organization decides if it is in its best interests to make certain products of perform certain services inside the organization, or if it is better to buy them from an outside organization.
  444. _________ can be used in various types of contracts to require the buyer to pay the supplier a predetermined amount per unit of product or service,.
    Unit Pricing
  445. A(n) ____________ is a contract clause that allows the buyer or supplier to end the contract.
    Termination Clause
  446. If a SOW is used as part of a contract to describe only work required for that particular contract, it is called a(n) _____________ statement of work.
  447. Many organization use samples and __________ to generate SOWs.
  448. A(n) ___________ is a document prepared by sellers providing pricing for standard items that have been clearly defined by the buyer.
  449. Experts in source selection highly recommend that buyers use formal proposal ________ sheets during source selection.
  450. Tools to assist in contract closure include ________, negotiated settlements, and a records management system.
    Procurement Audits
  451. ________________ are often done during contract closure to identify lessons learned in the entire procurement process.
    Procurement Audits
Card Set
Project Management Final Exam Flash Cards.
Project Management Final Exam Flash Cards (1 - 11) Complete (Left out False from the true or False)