1. Christianity
    • a.      After 1815, Christianity was revived
    •                                                               i.      18th: it lost attraction for educated elite as Enlightenment took over
    •                                                             ii.      Restoration of nobility brought new appreciation for Catholic faith as force for order in society
    • 1.      Appreciation reinforced by Romantic movement
    • a.      Romantics’ attraction to Middle Ages and their emphasis on emotionà revival of Christianity
  2. Catholicism
    •                                                               i.      Benefited from Romantic enthusiasm for religion and had many conversions to it
    •                                                             ii.      One of most popular expressions of this Romantic revival of Catholicism was through Frenchman Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand
  3. Genius of Christianity
    • 1.      Genius of Christianity= “Bible of Romanticism”
    • a.      His defense of Catholicism was based not on historical, theological, or rational grounds, but on Romantic sentiment
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      As a faith, Catholicism echoed harmony of all things and cathedrals brought one into very presence of God
  4. Protestantism
    •                                                               i.      Experienced revival= “awakening” already begun with enthusiastic emotional experiences of Methodism in Britain and Pietism in Germany
    • 1.      Methodist missionaries from England and Scotland carried messages of sin and redemption to liberal Protestant churches in France and Switzerland, winning converts to their strongly evangelical message
  5. Germany and Protestantism
    • Germany witnessed Protestant awakening as enthusiastic evangelical preachers found their messages of hellfire and their methods of emotional conversion evoked a ready response among people alienated by the highly educated establishment clergy of the state churches
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