1. I.                   Romanticism in Music
    • a.      To many Romantics, music was most Romantic of arts because it allowed composer to probe deeply into human emotions
    •                                                               i.      There was much carryover of classical forms from one century to next
    • b.      One of greatest composers, Beethoven, bridged Classicism and Romanticism
  2. Beethoven
    •                                                               i.      Singlehandedly transformed art of music
    •                                                             ii.      Yearned to communicate his cherished beliefs; music had to reflect his deeper inner feelings
    •                                                           iii.      Born in Bonn to Cologne family of musicians
    • 1.      Assistant organist at court at 13 and went to Vienna where he studied under Haydn
    • 2.      Work largely within classical framework and influences of Haydn and Mozart (first major period of composing)
  3. Beethoven works
    •                                                               i.      Third Symphony, called Eroica, which was intended for Napoleon, he broke through elements of Romanticism in use of uncontrolled rhythms to create dramatic struggle and uplifted resolutions
    •                                                             ii.      Wrote numerous works, but in midst of productivity and fame, he was growing deaf
    • 9th Symphony= totally deaf
  4. a.      Frenchman Hector Berlioz
    •                                                               i.      Father was doctor in Grenoble and wanted him to study medicine, but he said no and achieved fame in Germany, Russia, and Britain; his originality wasn’t honored in France
    • One of the founders of program music, which was an attempt to use moods and sound effects of instrumental music to depict actions and emotions inherent in a story, an event, or even a personal experience
  5. Berlioz' Symphonie Fantastique
    • 1.      Development of program music evident in his most famous piece, the first complete program symphony, the Symphonie Fantastique
    • a.      In this, he used music to evoke passionate emotions of a tortured love affair, including fifth movement in which he creates an opium-induced nightmare of a witch’s gathering
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