1. I.                   Prison Reform
    • a.      Increase in crimeà rise in arrests
    • b.      1820s: indiscriminate use of capital punishment, even for crimes against property, was increasingly being viewed as ineffective and was replaced by imprisonment
    •                                                               i.      Although Brits shipped convicted people of serious offenses to their colony of Australia, this slowed when colonists objectedà incarceration
    • a.      Prisons isolated criminals from society but several reformers questioned this, especially when prisoners were subjected to harsh and humiliating work as punishment
  2. 1830s
    • a.      1830s: European governments were seeking ways to reform their penal systems
    • b.      Motivated by desire to both punish and rehabilitate and transform criminals into new persons, the  Brits and French sent missions to US to examine how American systems accomplished goal
  3. After examining it
    •                                                               i.      After examining it, both French and Brits constructed prisons on Walnut Street model with separate cells that isolated prisoners from each other
    •                                                             ii.                  At Petite Roquette in France and Pentonville in Britain, prisoners wore leather masks during exercise and sat in separate stalls when in chapel
    •                                                           iii.                  Solitary confinement forced prisoners to examine consciencesà greater remorseà change evil ways
  4. As prison populations increased
    • a.      As prison populations increased, solitary confinement= expensive/ less feasible
    •                                                               i.      French returned to custom of sending prisoners to French Guiana to handle overload
  5. Prison reform
    • a.      Prison reform and police forces geared to creation of more disciplined society
    •                                                               i.      Disturbed by upheavals associated with revolutions and social discontent wrought by industrialization and urbanization, the ruling elites sought to impose some order on society
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