1. US Constitution
    • a.      US Constitution: US= liberalism and nationalism
    •                                                               i.      Initially, this constitutional commitment to national unity was challenged by divisions over power of the federal government vis-à-vis the individual states
  2. Bitter conflict
    • 1.      Bitter conflict erupted between Federalists and Republicans
    • a.      Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists favored a financial program that would establish a strong central government
    • The Republicans, guided by Jefferson and Madison, feared centralization and its consequences for popular liberties
  3. These divisions
    • 1.      These divisions were intensified by European rivalries because the Federalists were pro-British and the Republicans pro-French
    • a.      Successful conclusion of the War of 1812 brought an end to Federalists, who had opposed the war, while the surge of national feeling generated by the war served to heal the nation’s divisions
  4. Another strong force
    •                                                               i.      Another strong force for national unity came from Supreme Court while John Marshall was chief justice
    • 1.      Made Supreme Court an important national institution by asserting right of Court to overrule an act of Congress if the Court found it to be in violation of the Constitution
    • 2.      Under him, the Supreme Court contributed further to establishing supremacy of national government by curbing the actions of state courts and legislatures
  5. Andrew Jackson
    •                                                               i.      Election of Andrew Jackson as president in 1828 opened new era in American politics, the era of mass democracy
    • 1.      Electorate was expanded by dropping traditional property qualifications; by 1830s, suffrage was extended to almost all adult white males
    • a.      During 1815-1850, the traditional liberal belief in in improvement of human beings was given concrete expression
  6. Americans developed
                                                                  i.      Americans developed detention schools for juveniles and new penal institutions, motivated by liberal belief that the right kind of environment would rehabilitate those in need of it
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