USMLE Step 1 Micro

  1. Gram positive rods
    • Clostridium
    • Corynebacterium
    • Bacillus
    • Listeria
  2. Giemsa stains these
    • Borrelia
    • Plasmodium
    • Trypanosomes
    • Chlamydia
  3. Silver stain for these
    Fungi and legionella
  4. Ziehl-Neelsen stains these
    acid-fast organisms
  5. India ink stains this
    Cryptococcus neoformans
  6. Tellurite plate, Loffler's media grows this
    C. diphtheriae
  7. Lowenstein-Jensen agar for this
  8. Eaton's agar for this
    M. pneumoniae
  9. Charcoal yeast extract agar buffered with cysteine grows
  10. Sbouraud's agar grows
  11. obligate intracellular bugs
    rickettsia, chlamydia
  12. Facultative intracellular bugs
    • Salmonella
    • neisseria
    • Brucella
    • Mycobacterium
    • Listeria
    • Francisella
    • Legionella
  13. Encapsulated bacteria
    • Kleb
    • Salmonella
    • Strep pneumoniae
    • Haemophilus
    • Neisseria meningitidis
  14. Urease-positive bugs
    • Proteus
    • Kleb
    • H. pylori
    • Ureaplasma
  15. Bugs with IgA protease
    • S. pneumoniae
    • H. influenzae
    • Neisseria
  16. Novobiocin
    • Saprophyticus is resistant
    • Epidermidis is sensitive
  17. Optochin
    • Viridians is resistant
    • Pneumoniae is sensitive
  18. Bacitracin
    • Group B are resistant
    • Group A are sensitive
  19. Grow in 6.5% salt
    enterococci (group D strep)
  20. Diptheria's exotoxin does this
    Inhibits protein syntehsis via ADP ribosylation of EF-2
  21. MacConkey's agar grows these
    • lactose-fermenting enterics
    • Citrobacter, Kleb, E. coli, Enterobacter, Serratia
  22. Required for haemophilus culture
    • chocolate agar wtih V (NAD+) and X (hematin)
    • it likes growing with beta hemolytic organisms
  23. Red currant jelly sputum
  24. Rose spots on abdomen
    Salmonella typhi
  25. Flulike symptoms, jaundice, and photophobia in the tropics
    leptospira interrogans (Weil's disease)
  26. cat scratch fever
  27. undulant fever from dairy or animals
  28. tick, rabits, or deer
    francisella tularensis
  29. rickettsiae need these
    CoA and NAD+
  30. palm and sole rash
    • Coxsackievirus A (hand foot mouth)
    • Rocky mountain spotted fever (rickettsia)
    • Syphilis
  31. These bugs share antigens, used for diagnosis
    Rickettsia and proteus
  32. Types of chlamydia
    • A,B, and C: Africa/Blindness/Chronic infection
    • D-K: GU, neonatal, etc
    • L1-3: lymphogranuloma venereum (acute lymphadenitis, positive Frei)
  33. Membrane has cholesterol
    mycoplasma pneumoniae
  34. Define cocci, cryptococcus, cryptosporidium
    • Cocci: fungus that clusters
    • Cryptococcus: yeast found in soil and pigeon droppings. india ink, meningitis.
    • Cryptosporidium: acid-fast cysts; protozoal diarrhea in AIDS
  35. fatty stool
  36. bloody diarrhea, liver abscess, RUQ pain
    entamoeba histolytica
  37. Congenital toxoplasmosis
    • Chorioretinitis
    • Hydrocephalus
    • Intracranial calcifications
  38. Rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis; amoebas in spinal fluid
    Naegleria fowleri
  39. Enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever, somnolence
    African sleeping sickness from trypanosoma
  40. Dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus in south america
    Chagas disease from Trypanosoma
  41. fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia; macros have amastigotes
    Leishmania donovni
  42. RBC maltese cross; fever and emolytic anemia in NE US
    babesia from tick
  43. greenish vaginal discharge
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  44. squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder
  45. undercooked fish, biliary inflammation, cholangiocarcinoma
    Clonorchis sinensis
  46. crab meet with hemoptysis
    paragonimus westermani
  47. larvae cause vitamin B12 deficiency
    diphyllobothrium latum
  48. liver cysts
    echinococcus granulosus
  49. perianal pruritis
  50. brain cysts and seizures
    taenia solium (cysticercosis) from pork
  51. portal hypertension
    schistosoma mansoni
  52. All DNA viruses except this are dsDNA
  53. These DNA viruses have circular genomes
    • papilloma
    • polyoma
    • hepadnaviruses
  54. All RNA viruses except this are single stranded
  55. All viruses are haploid except these
  56. All DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus except this
  57. All RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm except these
    influenza and retroviruses
  58. nonenveloped viruses
    • Naked CPR and PAPP smear
    • Calici Picorna Reo
    • Parvo Adeno Papilloma Polyoma
  59. The only virus which gets its envelope from nuclear membrane
  60. the DNA viruses
    • Hepadna Herpes
    • Adeno
    • Pox Parvo Papilloma Polyoma
  61. Virus causing PML in HIV
    polyoma (dsDNA)
  62. virus causing molluscum contagiosum
  63. aseptic meningitis
    echovirus (picorna, RNA)
  64. coxsackievirus family/structure
    it's a picornavirus, non-enveloped
  65. norwalk virus
    calicivirus (RNA)
  66. diseases caused by flavivirus (RNA virus)
    HCV, yellow fever, dengue, st.louis encephalitis, west nile virus
  67. diseases caused by togaviruses
    Rubella (German measles), EEE, WEE
  68. Paramyxovirus diseases
    • parainfluenza
    • RSV
    • Measles (Rubeola)
    • Mumps
  69. negative-stranded viruses
    • Bring their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
    • Arena, bunya, paramyxo, orthomyxo, filo, rhabdo
  70. differentiate rubella, rubeola, roseola
    • Rubella: German 3-day measles, togavirus, fine truncal rash, serious if congenital
    • Rubeola: paramyxovirus, measles, head to toe rash and Koplik spots on buccal mucosa
    • Roseola: herpesvirus (HHV-6), high fever and diffuse rash
  71. F protein
    Fusion protein, paramyxoviruses, causes respiratory epithelial cells to fuse and form multinucleated cells (croup, mumps, measles)
  72. hepatitis viruses
    • HAV: RNA picorna virus, nonenveloped
    • HBV: DNA hepadnavirus
    • HCV: RNA flavivirus
    • HDV: lame
    • HEV: RNA hepevirus, the only one. non-enveloped
  73. IgM HBcAb
    recent disease
  74. IgG HBcAb
    chronic disease
  75. IgG hep A antibody
    protective against reinfection
  76. IgM hep A antibody
    active Hep A
Card Set
USMLE Step 1 Micro
USMLE Step 1 Micro FA 2010