Comp Org

  1. What are the 3 parts of a skeleton?
    Vertebral column, pelvic girdle, and the limbs
  2. What forms the axial skeleton?
    Vertebral column and ribs
  3. What is the function of the vertebral column?
    Protect the spinal cord and aid locomation by resisting compression and providing attachments for muscles
  4. What is the role of the vertebral column in fishes compared to terrestrial animals?
    Helps fish swim in water (relatively dense medium)In terrestrial animals, the vertebral column is more important for supporting the body (not supported by buoyancy of water)
  5. where are the trunk and caudal vertebrate?
    Image Upload 2
    Trunk vertebrate are near the head, caudal vertebrate are near the tail
  6. What is the difference between hemal and neural spines on the vertebrate?
    Hemal spine form an arch on the ventral side and allow a blood vessel to pass throughNeural spines provide large areas for muscle attachements Neural is on the top, hemal is on the bottom
  7. Name the types of vertebrae on this skeleton
    Image Upload 4
    neck = cervical, ribs = thoracic, waist = lumbar, hips = sacral, tail = caudal
  8. What are the functions of the different sections of vertebrae? (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, caudal)
    Cervical (neck) = allows movement of head (fish don't have discrete cerv. vert)Thoracic (ribs) = move in ventilation and transfer weight of the cranial portion of the trunk to the pectoral girdle Lumbar (cranial to pelvic girdle, ribs are reduced and fused to vertebate) = allows flexibility Sacral (hip?) = transfers weight of posterior part of body to pelvic girdleCaudal (tail) = tails can be used for locomotion balance, signaling, etc
  9. What is the noctarium?
    It's a bone that serves as a fulcrum for wing action
  10. Which vertebrae are fused to form the notarium in birds?
  11. What is the synsacrum?
    bone made of the fusion of trunk and sacral verterbae that attaches to the pelvic girdle
  12. What is the pygostyle?
    In birds, it it the fusion of caudal vertebrae where large feathers attach
  13. What makes up the appendicular skeleton?
    Limbs and the girdles
  14. What makes up the pectoral girdle in humans?
    scapula and clavicle
  15. In fishes, where is the pectoral girdle located?
    They're usually anchored to the back of the skull by a bone
  16. Where are the anal, pelvic, pectoral, and dorsal fins?
    Image Upload 6
    Dorsal = on back, pelvic = on belly, anal = bottom tail end, pectoral = behind skull
  17. In the fish, does the pelvic girdle articulate with the vertebral column?
  18. What is the pelvic symphysis?
    The midline cartilanginous joint that unites the left and right of the pelvic bones
  19. What is the role of the pectoral girdle in birds?
    Acts as a brace against the rigorous up and down strikes of the wing
  20. Where is the clavicle and scapula on this picture?
    Clavicle is the V-shaped bone on the front. The scapula is below the clavicleImage Upload 8
  21. Do most terrestrial mammals have clavicles and corocoids?
  22. What is a synsacrum?
    Where the trunk vertebrae have fused with the sacral vertebrae for the attahchement of the pelvic girdle
  23. What are the order of the bones in an arm?
    Scapula --> humerus --> radius + ulna (ulna is elbow side) --> carpus --> metacarpus
  24. What is the order of the bones in a hind leg?
    Pelvic girdle > femur > tibia + fibula (back) > tarsus > metatarsals >
  25. The bones connecting the digits and ulna/radius in a bird's wings are:
  26. What are the bones in a bird's legs?
    Femur > tibiotarsus + fibula > tarsometatarsus > digits
  27. If muscle is attached close to the join, in-level arm is short,
    then movement is rapid with less force
  28. If you increase the in-lever, does outword force or speed increase?
    Force increases
  29. Birds lack a symphysis because?
    To make egg laying easier
  30. What are tendons?
    connective tissue from muscle to bone
  31. What is the connective tissue that surronds a bone and connects to the tendon?
  32. Groups of muscle fibers are called?
  33. Image Upload 10
    Identify the perimyseum, epimyseum, and endomyseum. What are they?
    • epi = red,¬†Peri = blue, endo = green,¬†
    • They're connective tissues that surround all of the muscle, surrounds a fasciculus, and surrounds a muscle fiber
  34. Skeletal fibers are long, cylindrical and multinucleated
  35. The plasma membrane of skeletal muscle fibers are called?
  36. The cytoplasm of a skeletal muscle fibers are?
  37. Most of the sarcoplasm is occupied by?
    Myofibrils (longitundinal)
  38. What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
    Tubules of smooth ER that surround the myofibrils and have specialized expansions near the T-tubules. Uptake and release of calcium ions in sacroplasm
  39. Where is the sarcolemma invaginated?
    At the A-I junctions, forms a T-system of tubules traversely
  40. Name these areas
    Image Upload 12
    • Blue = z line
    • green = I band
    • yellow = sarcomere
    • red = a band
  41. Image Upload 14
    Where are the sacrolemma and sacroplasmic reticulum?
    Sarcolemma is the vertical line on the left. Sarcoplasmic reticulum are indicated by the green arrows
  42. What is this a picture of?
    Image Upload 16
    muscle fiber
  43. What are the arrows pointing to?
    Image Upload 18
    Axons of a muscle fiber
  44. Skeletal muscles are made of what two types of fibers?
    Fast and slow
  45. What are the characteristics of cardiac muscle?
    Frequently branch, striated, involuntary contraction
  46. Identify the fascia adherens and gap junctions in this picture of cardiac muscle
    Image Upload 20
    arrows = gap junction
  47. How many nuclei does smooth muscle have?
  48. Image Upload 22

    What is diaphysis?
    Major tubular part of the shaft of a bone
  49. What is the flared end of the diaphysis called?
  50. What are the bulbous ends of bones called?
  51. What is spongey bone called?
    Cancellous bone
  52. What is a growth plate in bones?
    in immature individuals, hyaline cartilage seperates metaphysis and epiphysis
  53. what is this?
    Image Upload 24
    crosssection of a bone
Card Set
Comp Org
Comparative vertebrate organology