1. Revolution and Reform: Forces of change breaking through __ of Europe in 1830; 1848: wave of _fervor caused __ and __ to think they were on verge of new order
    • conservative domination
    • revolutionary
    • liberals and nationalists
  2. Another French Revolution
    • a.      New elections Charles X called in 1830à another victory for French liberals
    •                                                               i.      Now, the king decided to seize the initiative
    • 1.      July 26, 1830: issued set of edicts (the July Ordinances) that imposed rigid censorship on the press, dissolved the legislative assembly, and reduced the electorate in preparation for new elections
  3. Charles' actions
    •                                                               i.      Charles’s actions produced immediate rebellion—the July Revolution
    • 1.      Barricades went up in Paris as provisional government led by group of moderate, propertied liberals was formed and appealed to Louis-Philippe, the duke of Orleans, a cousin of Charles X, to become constitutional king of France
    • a.      Charles X fled to Britainà new monarchy 
  4. Louis Philippe
    • a.      Louis-Philippe called bourgeois monarch because political support for his rule came from upper middle class
    •                                                               i.      Dressed like member of middle class in business suits and hats
    •                                                             ii.      Constitutional changes that favored the interests of the upper bourgeoisie were instituted
    •                                                           iii.      Financial qualifications for voting reduced but remained high= voters increased from 100,000 to 2000,000= only wealthiest voted
  5. Upper middle class
    • a.      To the upper middle class, the bourgeois monarchy was the stop for political progress
    • b.      To lesser bourgeoisie and Parisian working class, who helped overthrow Charles X in 1830, it was a severe disappointment because they had been completely excluded from political power
  6. Rapid expansion of French industry
    • a.      Rapid expansion of French industryà industrial working class concentrated in certain urban areas
    •                                                               i.      Terrible working and living conditions and the periodic economic crises that created high levels of unemployment led to worker unrest and sporadic outbursts of violence
  7. Chamber of Deputies
    •                                                               i.      In this legislature, there were differences of opinion about bourgeois monarchy and the direction it should takeà two groups, both composed of upper-middle-class representatives:
    • Party of Movement nad Party of Resistance
  8. party of movement
    1.      Party of Movement, led by Adolphe Thiers, favored ministerial responsibility, the pursuit of an active foreign policy, and limited expansion of the franchise
  9. party of resistance
    1.      Party of Resistance led by Francois Guizot; believed France had finally reached the “perfect form” of government and needed no further institutional changes
  10. Party of Resistance after 1840
    •                                                               i.      After 1840, Party of Resistance dominated
    • 1.      Guizot cooperated with Louis-Philippe in suppressing ministerial responsibility and pursuing a policy favoring interests of wealthier manufacturers and tradespeople
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