1. Nationalism
    • a.      Arose out of awareness of being part of a community that has common institutions, traditions, language, and customs
    •                                                               i.      This community constitutes a nation and it, rather than dynasty, etc., becomes focus of individual’s primary political loyalty
  2. Nationalism
    Popular or no?
    • a.      Not a popular force for change until French Revolution, when nationalists believed each nationality should have own government
    •                                                               i.      Divided people like Germans wanted national unity in German nation-state with one central government
    •                                                             ii.      Subject peoples, like Hungarians, wanted national self-determination, or right to establish own autonomy rather than be subject to German minority in multinational empire
  3. Nationalism
    Threatened to???
    • a.      Threatened to upset existing political order, both internationally and nationally
    •                                                               i.      A united Germany or Italy would upset balance of power made in 1815
    •                                                             ii.      An independent Hungarian state would mean breakup of Austrian Empire
    •                                                           iii.      Because European states were multinational, people tried to repress nationalism 
  4. Nationalism
    Nationalism and Liberalism
    • a.      Nationalism+ liberalism
    •                                                               i.      Most liberals believed liberty could be realized only by peoples who ruled themselves
    •                                                             ii.      Many nationalists believed once each people obtained own state, all nations could be linked together into broader community of all humanity 
  5. Early Socialism
    • a.      First half of 19th: socialism arose from pitiful conditions of slums, mines, and factories
    •                                                               i.      Associated with Marxist analysis of human society, but early socialism was largely the product of political theorists or intellectuals who wanted to introduce equality into social conditions and believed that human cooperation was superior to competition that characterized early industrial capitalism
    • 1.      To later Marxists, such ideas were impractical dreams and these theorists were called utopian socialists
  6. Early Socialism
    Utopian socialists
    •                                                               i.      Against private property and competition of industrial capitalism
    • 1.      Through their elimination and creating new systems of social organization, they thought that a better environment for humanity could be achieved
    •                                                             ii.      Early socialists proposed a variety of ways to accomplish that task
  7. Early Socialism
    •                                                               i.      One group of early socialists sought to create voluntary associations that would demonstrate advantages of cooperative living
    •                                                             ii.      Charles Fourier
    • 1.      proposed creation of small model communities called phalansteries
    • a.      These were self-contained cooperatives, each consisting ideally of 1620 people
    • b.      Communally housed, the inhabitants of the phalanstery would live and work together for their mutual benefit
    • c.       Work assignments rotated to prevent undesirable tasks
    • 2.      Fourier was unable to gain financial backing for phalansteriesà plan untested
  8. Robert Owen
    •                                                               i.      British cotton manufacture who believed that humans would reveal true goodness if living in cooperative environment
    •                                                             ii.      Successful in transforming a squalid factory town into flourishing, healthy community
  9. Owen's attempt
    •                                                               i.      His attempt to create a self-contained cooperative community at New Harmony, Indiana, in the US in the 1820s, fights within community destroyed dream
    • 1.      One of his disciples, Frances Wright (wealthy woman), bought slaves to set up model community in Tennessee, but failed
    • Wright still fought for women’s rights
  10. Louis Blanc
    •                                                               i.      The Organization of Work
    • 1.      Maintained that social problems could be solved by government assistance
    • 2.      Denounced competition as main cause of economic evils and called for establishment of workshops that would manufacture goods for public sale
    • a.      State would finance these workshops, but workers own and operate them 
  11. Female supporters
    •                                                               i.      Attracted to utopian socialists who believed reordering of society would help women
    • 1.      Zoe Gatti de Gamond made own phalanstery, which was supposed to provide men and women with same education and job opportunities
    • a.      As part of collective living, men and women share responsibilities
  12. Comte de Saint-Simon
    • a.      Combined Christian values, scientific thought, and socialist utopianism= attracted women who took part in growing activism of women in politics that had been set in motion during French Revolution
    • b.      Her ideal cooperative society recognized principle of equality between men and women, and a number of working class women, including Suzanne Voilqun, Claire Demar, and Reine Guindorf, published a newspaper dedicated to freeing women
  13. Flora Tristan
    • a.      Female Utopian socialist, Flora Tristan
    •                                                               i.      Attempted to foster “utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism”
    • 1.      Traveled through France preaching the need for liberation of women
    •                                                             ii.      Worker’s Union
    • 1.      Advocated application of Fourier’s ideas to reconstruct both family and work
  14. Flora Tristan envisioned...
    •                                                               i.      Envisioned this absolute equality as only hope to free working class and transform civilization
    •                                                             ii.      Like other utopian socialists, she was ignored and criticized
    • 1.      Still, she laid groundwork for later attacks on capitalism
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