1. metric system
    decimal system that uses only one basic unit for each type of measurement
  2. meter
    unit of length; m
  3. liter
    unit of volume; l
  4. gram
    unit of mass; g
  5. 3 basic units
    meter, liter, and gram
  6. Very small distance
    micrometer (um), also known as micron

    nanometer (nm)

    *1 um = 0.00001 m; 1 mil um = 1 m; 1 nm = 0.000000001 m
  7. Giga, mega, kilo, hecto, and deka
    G 1,000,000,000 x base

    M 1,000,000 x base

    K 1,000 x base

    H 100 x base

    D 10 x base
  8. deci, centi, milli, micro, nano
    d 0.1 x base

    c 0.01 x base

    m 0.001 x base

    u 0.000001 x base

    n 0.000000001 x base
  9. specific gravity
    ratio of the mass of a given volume of the substance to the mass of an equal volume of some other substance taken as a standard, g/cm3
  10. Conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit
    °F = (1.8)°C + 32°
  11. Conversion of Fahrenheit to Celsius
    °C = (°F - 32°) / 1.8
  12. Conversion of Kelvin to Celsius and C to K
    (K-273)°, (C+273)K
  13. astronomical unit
    unit for measuring distance within solar system, AU
  14. light-year
    unit for measuring distance to stars and beyond, LY
  15. 1 AU =___ kilometers =___ miles
    150 million, 93 million
  16. 1 LY =___ km =___ miles
    9,454,254,955,488, 6 trillion
  17. density
    mass of substance per unit volume, g/cm3
  18. methods of scientific inquiry
    1. hypothesis

    2. gather data & conduct experiments to validate hypothesis

    3. conclusion
  19. 1 ml of water equals...
    1 cm3 and 1 gram
  20. Earth's grid
    a system of north-south and east-west lines
  21. latitude
    North and south distance on Earth
  22. parallels of latitude
    lines on grid that extend around Earth in an East West direction
  23. equator
    line on Earth's surface, mark N & S distance
  24. longitude
    East and West distance on Earth
  25. Meridians of longitude
    each halves of circles extending from North Pole - South Pole on one side of Earth
  26. prime meridian
    line on Earth's surface, marking E and W distance
  27. the intersection of a parallel of latitude w/meridian of longitude determines...
    location of point on Earth's surface
  28. precise location
    degrees(°), minutes ('), seconds (")

    • °; destinations, distance around circle
    • '; degrees subdivided¬†into 60 equal parts
    • "; minute of angle divided into 60 parts
  29. hemispheres
    2 equal halves of globe
  30. Solar (Sun, time)
    uses position of Sun to determine time
  31. Standard Time
    system used throughout most of the world, divide globe into 24 standard time zones
  32. great circle
    largest possible circle that can be drawn on a globe
  33. small circle
    circles on a globe's surface that don't share Earth's center
  34. The Equator is the only parallel that is also
    a great circle
  35. If you observe the north star (Polaris) to be 47 degrees above your north horizon, your latitude is
    47 degrees north
  36. 2.5 hours solar time is equivalent to __________degrees of longitude
  37. The length of a degree of longitude increases at...
    higher latitudes
  38. The farthest one can get from the Equator in latitude is...
    90 degrees north and 90 degrees south
  39. All meridians, when paired with their opposite meridian on Earth, form...
    great circles
  40. The Tropic of Capricorn lies north of the..
  41. The longitude of the North Pole is...
    it has no longitude
  42. In terms of longitude, which of the 50 states are furthest east and furthest west?
    Alaska, Alaska
  43. If you observe the noon sun on board your ship at 1:30 PM Greenwich time, your longitude is...
    22.5 degrees west
  44. At the June solstice the sun can be seen directly overhead only at the...
  45. On September 21, the sun's rays are perpendicular to the Earth's surface at...
    the Equator
  46. In Australia, the spring equinox is marked on...
    September 21-22
  47. What is your latitude if on June 21 you observe the noon Sun to be 80.5 degrees above your south horizon?
    33 degrees north
  48. On December 21, where would you go to experience 24 hours of daylight?
    South Pole
  49. What is the relation between noon Sun angle and amount of solar radiation received at the outer edge of the Earths atmosphere?
    higher angle, more radiation
  50. Variation in the intensity and duration of solar radiation at any given place is largely caused by...
    the tilt of the Earths axis of rotation relative to the plane of the ecliptic
  51. The maximum noon Sun angle at Bombay India during the year, (19 degrees N.) is...
    89 degrees
  52. Winter begins in the southern hemisphere on...
    June 21-22
  53. During the winter months in South Africa, you would observe the noon Sun angle looking to the...
  54. The Earth is approximately how far from the Sun?
    150 million kilometers, 93 million miles, 1 AU
  55. map
    generalized view of an area
  56. cartography
    part of geography that embodies mapmaking
  57. map projection
    transformation of spherical Earth and its latitude-longitude coordinate grid system to a flat surface in some orderly and systematic realignment
  58. physical properies of a globe
    -parallels are always parallel to each other

    -meridians converge at both poles and are eavenly spaced along any individual parallel

    -distance between meridians decreases toward poles, w/spacing between meridians at the 60th parallels equal to one-half the equatorial spacing

    -parallels and meridians always cross each other at right angles
  59. equal area
    trait of map projection; indicates equivalence of all areas on surface of the map
  60. true shape
    map property showing correct configuration of coastlines
  61. 3 classes of maps
    cylindrical, planar, and conic
  62. standard line
    contact line between globe and projection surface
  63. mercator projection
    conformal, true shape
  64. rhumb lines
    line of constant compass direction, which crosses all meridians at same angle
  65. gnomonic projection
    possesses a valuable features
  66. representative fraction (RF)
    diameter of globe/diameter of Earth = 61 cm/ 12,756 cm = 1 cm/ 20,911,000 cm
  67. 4 types of map distortion
    size/area, shape, distance, direction

  68. ratio of map scale
    indicating how much distance on Earth a certain distance on the map represents
  69. map scale displayed in 3 ways
    written scale, representative fraction, graphic scale
  70. large vs. small scale
    large scale shows less area but that area is more detailed on map

    small shows big area but with less detail

    1/500 = 0.002, bigger

    1/3 = 0.003333, smaller
  71. weather
    state of atmosphere at a particular place for a short period of time
  72. four basic elements of weather
    temperature, moisture, air pressure, and wind
  73. Sun's intensity
    the angle at which the rays of sunlight strike a surface
  74. Sun's duration
    length of daylight
  75. standard unit of solar radiation
    langley = 1 calorie
  76. solar constant
    average intensity of solar radiation falling on a surface perpendicular to the solar beam at the outer edge of the atmosphere
  77. Tropic of Cancer
    23.5 degrees N latitude
  78. Tropic of Capricorn
    23.5 degrees S latitude
  79. equinox
    March 20-21 and September 22-23 when circle of illuminations divides Earth through the poles and all places have days and nights of equal length
  80. analemma
    graph than can be used to determine the latitude where the overhead noon Sun is located for any date
  81. minerals
    naturally occurring, inorganic solid with an orderly internal arrangement of atoms and definite, but not fixed, chemical composition

    *can contain only one substance, some have economic value and are used in various industries
  82. the main type of distortion in a Mercator projector map distorts is...
  83. the main type of distortion in a Lambert projection map is...
  84. the only place on a map where there is no distortion is called...
    standard line
  85. Optical Properties of Minerals
    Luster, Transmission of light, Color, Streak
  86. Luster
    describes manner in which light is reflected from the surface of the mineral

    metallic or nonmetallic
  87. Transmission of Light
    ability of mineral to transmit light

    • -opaque: no light transmitted
    • -translucent: light but no image transmitted
    • -transparent: image visible through mineral
  88. Color
    *least reliable physical properties because it can be misleading
  89. Streak
    color of the fine powder of a mineral obtained by rubbing a corner across a piece of porcelain (streak plate)
  90. Hardness
    measure of resistance of a mineral to abrasion and scratching

    *measured on Mohs scale
  91. Crystal Forms
    external appearance when a mineral forms with no space restrictions

    • -flat surfaced called crystal faces
    • -distinctive number of face
  92. Cleavage
    how surfaces breaks

    • -smooth, flat surfaces called cleavage planes
    • -parallel planes counted only once
  93. Specific Cleavage
    indicator of weight of mineral

    *average specific value is 2.7
  94. Other Properties of Minerals
    • Magnetism
    • Feel
    • Taste
    • Striations (straight lines)
    • Tenacity
    • Reaction to Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
  95. Rocks
    aggregates of minerals
  96. 3 types of rocks
    Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic
  97. Igneous
    solidified products of once molten material (magma); interlocking arrangement of mineral crystals that forms as molten material cools and crystal grows
  98. Sedimentary
    formed at or near Earth's surface from weathering

    *lithification, transforms sediment into hard rock
  99. Metamorphic
    form below Earth's surface where high temperatures, pressures, and/or chemical fluids change preexisting rocks without melting them
  100. Texture of rock
    shape, arrangement, and size of mineral grains in a rock
  101. Composition of rock
    minerals that are found in a rock
  102. Textures of Igneous Rocks
    • -Coarse Grained: occurs when magma cools slowly inside Earth
    • -Fine Grained: develops when molten material cools quickly on, or very near, surface of Earth
    • -Porphyritic: caused by magma having two different rates of cooling; phenocrysts and groundmass
    • -Glassy: develops because of rapid cooling
    • -Fragmental: rock contains broken fragments produced during volcanic eruption
  103. Composition of Igneous Rocks
    • -Felsic: light-colored minerals quartz, granitic
    • -Intermediate: 15% - 45% of darkness
    • -Mafic: over 45% of darkness
    • -Ultramafic: ultra dark
  104. Sedimentary Rock Identification
    Detrital material: derived from process of mechanical weathering transported and deposited as solid particles

    Chermical material: previously dissolved in water and later precipitated by either inorganic or organic processes
  105. Metaphoric Rock divided into two groups
    foliated and nonfoliated
  106. foliation
    unique to many metaphoric rocks and gives them a layered or banded appearance
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