Astronomy 111

  1. Earth's regions
    • 1. Crust-thin layer of continental and ocean crust
    • 2. Mantle-made of rocky material/ hot partially molten material
    • 3. Outer core-liquid mantle made of Iron and nickle, change in chemical make up
    • 4. Inner core Solid, made out of iron and nickle, 600k temp of surface of sun
  2. Continental crust vs. Ocean Crust
    • 1. Continental - mostly made of granite
    • 2. Ocean - basalt; rock that solidifies from molten state
  3. P waves vs. S waves
    • 1. P waves (pressure or primary)
    •     -sound waves
    •     -travel through water / liquid
    • 2. S waves (secondary or shear)
    •     -waves like rope
  4. What does it mean to say earth was differentiated?
    • -The highest density materials are at the center and lowest density are at the surface
    • -At some point, earth was molten
  5. What heated surface of earth
    • -radioactive elements heat earth from inside
    • -planetestimals crashing into surface
  6. Plate techtonics
    • -The crust of earth is broken up into plates that slide over mantle
    •    -plate move 1-2 cm year
    •    -as fast as fingernails grow
  7. Rifts and subduction zones
    • Rift-place where two plates are pushed apart. This makes a new crust
    • Subduction zone- place where one piece of crust in pushed under another
  8. Earth's atmosphere TODAY
    • nitrogen 78%
    • oxygen 2%
  9. Earth's original atmosphere
    • -H2O water vapor condensed to form..
    • -Carbon dioxide liquid water oceans

    Methane & Ammonia were broken apart by ultra violet light from the sun
  10. Two things earth has that Venus and mars don't
    • 1. Liquid oceans
    • 2. Life
  11. How did CO2 get locked inside rocks on earth
    • 1. Carbon dioxide dissolves in water
    • 2. sea creatures with hard shells use CO2 
    • 3. Shells compress and become limestone
  12. Average density of the moon
    • 3.3v g/cm3 on a scale where water is 1 g/cm3
    • like density of rock on earths surface
    • earth is 5.5 g/cm3
  13. Moon's core
    Small or no iron core
  14. Highlands vs. Maria
    • 1. Highlands- light in color / heavily cratered / original crust of the moon
    • 2. Maria- darker / smooth / lava came up
  15. Brief history of the mon
    • 1. 4.5 billion years ago the moon was formed and was completely molten. This solid crust over molten known as highlands
    • 2. 4.3-3.9 heavy bombardment
    • 3. 3.9-3.0 lava came up and made maria
  16. Old theories of the moon
    • 1. Sister theory-earth and moon formed together just as they are now
    • 2. Fission theory-moon broke off from a rapidly rotating earth
    • 3. capture theory-moon formed elsewhere and was captured my the earth
  17. What is earth's sister planet?
    Venus because they are the same size and mass
  18. Terrestrial Planets
    Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mass
  19. What do mercury and the moon have in common?
    • 1. Completely cratered surface
    • 2. Lack of atmosphere
  20. Spin orbit coupling
    Mercury rotates 3 times on its axis for every 2 orbits
  21. How is rotation of mercury measured
    bouncing radio waves from earth off the surface and measuring the reflected signals
  22. Mercury surface
    It is both heavily surfaces and cratered
  23. Caloris basin
    large impact basin that faces the sun at every perihelion
  24. Why is mercury smooth?
    Regions may be so hot they melted
  25. Scarps
    • -long high cliffs created by carps
    • -buckling as planet cooled and shrank
  26. What is the principle gas in the atmosphere of venus?
    95% carbon dioxide
  27. How thick is Venus' atmosphere?
    90 times thicker than earth's
  28. Atmosphere of Mars
    • very thin carbon dioxide
    • pressure is 6/1000 of earths
  29. Which terrestrial planet has the largest volcanic mountains
  30. Jovian Planets
    Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
  31. Two most common atoms in Jupiter and Saturn
    • Hydrogen
    • Helium
  32. What do we believe the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn are like?
    Layers of extremely dense gas with small rocky core at center
  33. Belts and Zones
    • Belts-regions of descending gas/ flow in one direction
    • Zones-rising gas / blows in opposite directions
  34. What planets give off more energy than they receive from the sun?
    Jupiter and saturn
  35. What planet is still cooling off from 4.5 billion years ago
  36. What is happening to the helium on Saturn?
    it is sinking into the center of the planet and creating the excess energy
  37. What are the interiors or Uranus and Neptune like?
    Thick and ice
  38. What gas in Neptune's and Uranus' atmospheres make them appear blue?
  39. What does Uranus look like?
    Completely turquoise-green ball
  40. What does Neptune look like?
    Swirls of blue and green
  41. What is unusual about the rotation of Uranus?
    Retrograde. Axis of rotation is almost parallel to orbital plain.
  42. Which of the four Jovial planets has the most extensive ring?
Card Set
Astronomy 111
week after spring break