CDO 439 Assessment

  1. Reasons for evaluation
    • Establishes or rules out disorder (eligibility)
    • Establishes severity level
    • Establishes intervention plan (POT)
    • Establishes prognosis
  2. Preliminary Assessment
    • Look at referrals
    • Look at the old case history or the new case
    • history that you have them do
    • Be able to fill in the blanks – read between the lines
  3. Assessment
    Common aspects/procedures
    • Perform oral-peripheral exam
    • Screen hearing
    • Obtain language sample
    • Administer standardized tests
    • Administer other evaluation measures
    • Conduct disorder specific evaluations
    • Observe a variety of skills
    • Analyze the results
    • Determine impressions/recommendations and discuss as appropriate
    • Write a report
  4. Perform oral-peripheral exam
    Helps you determine the structure and function of the oral cavity
  5. Obtain language sample
    • Important assessment instrument
    • Allows assessment in natural context
  6. Administer standardized tests
    Reliable, valid, and culturally sensitive
  7. Areas of Assessment
    • Language
    • Motor speech
    • Voice
    • Fluency
    • Hearing
    • Augmentative/Alternative communication (AAC)
    • Collateral areas
  8. Domains of Language
    3 areas
    • Content AKA semantics
    • Form AKA syntax, morphology, phonology, and prosody
    • Use AKA pragmatics including interactional aspects, conversational rules, adapting/adopting listener perspective
  9. Content – Semantics
    • Speech and language problems have an increased probability of occurring together
    • Semantics – vocabulary, concepts in regard to content, and linkage of ideas.
  10. Form – Syntax
    • Syntax – the organization of words to provide meaning
    • Morphology – the structure of a word (prefix, suffix, vowel sound change due to placement, plurals, tenses
    • Phonology – sound system
    •    Phonemes, articulation
    • Prosody – stress, intonation, pitch, projection (loudness), and rhythm
  11. Use – Pragmatics
    • Asking for clarification
    • Ability to protest
    • How do you express language?
    • How do you use language?
    • You cannot directly observe comprehension.
  12. The clinician’s way of questioning does influence the client’s response.
    • Open ended questions are best
    • Rather than “What is this?” ask them “Tell me about this” because it opens the opportunity for the clinician to make lots of observations about language
  13. Motor-speech
    • Speech intelligibility increases communication effectiveness
    • Analysis of spontaneous speech provides the most valuable information regarding intelligibility
    • Oral peripheral exam is very important to see what structures look like and the way that they are functioning
    •    This can tell you why someone may have an intelligibility issue
    • Diadochokinesous
  14. Areas of Assessment
    • Language
    • Motor speech
    • Voice
    • Fluency
    • Hearing
    • Augmentative/alternative communication (AAC)
    • Collateral areas
  15. Voice - 7 areas
    • resonance, phonation, pitch, loudness, quality, rate, and respiration
    • In transgender communities we may work on voice but it is not a disorder it is a difference
  16. Fluency
    This is often accompanied with some physical issues such as eye blinking, grimaces, twitches, tension
  17. Methods of Assessment
    • Norm-referenced or standardized tools
    • Criterion referenced tools
    • Observation tools
  18. Statistical considerations:
    • Reliability
    • Validity
    • Standardization or norming sample
    • Descriptive statistics
    • Error
    • Test scores and norms
  19. Norm referenced
    • Standardized
    • Compare an individual’s performance to the performance of others with similar demographic characteristics
    • Useful for determining existence of a problem and establishing eligibility for services
    • Help determine goals and objectives and help determine what to work on first
  20. Reliability
    • The dependability of a test or procedure to result in consistent results over repeated administrations and by different examiners
    • Reported in coefficients - .90 or better is desirable
  21. Validity
    The degree to which a procedure actually measures what it proposes to measure
  22. Descriptive statistics
    • Normal distribution
    • Mean score-average
    • Standard deviation
  23. Error
    Standard Error of Measurement and Confidence Interval
  24. Test scores and norms
    2 types
    • Scores of relative standings
    • Developmental scores
  25. Scores of relative standings
    • Raw score
    • Standard scores
    • Percentile scores (not the same as percentages)
    • Z-scores
    • T-scores
  26. Developmental scores
    • Age equivalents
    • Grade equivalents
    • (do not be surprised if you are required to do this)
  27. Administration of Norm-Referenced Tests
    • Administer exactly as detailed
    • Deviations affect the results and must be reported. Interpret with caution.
  28. Criterion Referenced Tools
    • Allow us to measure skills in terms of absolute levels of mastery
    • Do not tell us if persons vary from a normative group
    • Useful in baseline measurements and developing intervention targets
  29. Behavior Observation
    A method to objectively describe behavior in a systematic fashion without reference to any predetermined standard.
  30. Behavior Observation is useful for measuring
    • Presence/absence of a behavior
    • Frequency, rate, magnitude or duration of its occurrence
    • Situations in which it is likely to occur
    • Involves Ethnography, conversation analysis
  31. Ethnography
    Considering the client’s culture
    • Referral
    • Data gathering
    • Diagnostic
    • Results
    • Recommendations
    • Share information with client/family
    • Complete clinical report
  33. Referral
    • Must be addresses within 24 hours
    • must make contact within 24 hours
  34. Data gathering
    • Relevant records
    • Case history information
    • Client/family interview
  35. Diagnostic
    • Client observation
    • Test administration
    • Informal measurements
    • Screen related and collateral areas
    • Stimulability
  36. Results
    • Score tests
    • Analyze/integrate data
    • Develop profile of strength and needs
    • Start to think about goals and objectives

            SEVERITY   PROGNOSIS             REFER
  37. Recommendations
    What ever we say we recommend we must do, if not it may be a lawsuit
  38. Share information with client/family
    Show empathy for the feelings of these families as we share information
  39. Complete clinical report
    done in writing
Card Set
CDO 439 Assessment
SLP Assessment