Psychopharmachology Exam 2

  1. A specific antianxiety drug. (Synthetic)
  2. A specific powerful stimulant. (Synthetic)
  3. Describes the molecular structure.
    Chemical name
  4. Given to a group of similar chemicals.
    Chemical group name
  5. Given to a new drug by a pharmaceutical company that discovers or synthesizes the new drug.
    Code name
  6. A shorter official name for a drug.
  7. Drug name given by a drug company that produces the drug.
    Brand name
  8. Chemical structure, mechanism of action, therapeutic use, legal classification, according to behavioral effects (sedative-hypnotics, stimulants, hallucinogens, psychotherapeutics, narcotic analgesics).
    Drug classifications
  9. Cause relaxation, sedation, or loss
    of consciousness by two mechanisms:

      (1) Decreasing the metabolic activity of           neurons

      (2) Increasing the sensitivity of GABAa

    barbiturates, benzodiazepines, alcohol, and anesthetics.
    Sedatives (sedative-hypnotics)
  10. Stimulate the CNS and activate

    nicotine, amphetamine, methylphenadate, and cocaine.
  11. Modify perception, produce

    LSD, PCP, and THC
  12. 1.Antischizophrenic drugs: haloperidol,
    chlorpromazine, clozapine, resperidone, and olazepine.

    drugs: phenelzine, amitriptyline, imipramine,
    fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline.

    (Both examples of...)
    Psychotherapeutic drugs
  13. Reduce pain but are highly

    opium, heroin, morphine, codeine, meperidine, and methadone.
    Narcotic analgesics
  14. 1.Grand mal seizure: tonic-clonic seizure, which results in loss of consciousness and a violent convulsion.

    2.Petit mal seizure (absence): a disruption of consciousness that is associated with
    cessation of ongoing behavior, a vacant look, and sometimes fluttering eyelids.
    Generalized seizures: are widespread and involve the entire brain.
  15. 1.Simple
    partial seizures: cause minor changes in consciousness.

    partial seizures: produce altered consciousness.
    Partial seizures: have a focus and do not involve the entire brain.
  16. Phenobarbital (Luminal)

    Primidone (Mysoline)

    Diazepam (Valium)

    Lorazepam (Ativan)

    Carbamazepine (Tegretol)

    Valproic Acid (Depakene)

    Gabapentin (Neurontin)

    Lamotrigine (Lamictal)

    (All examples of...)
    Antiepileptic drugs (anticonvulsants)
  17. Most antiepileptic drugs are
    metabolized and then eliminated although some drugs are partially eliminated

    Some antiepileptic drugs are
    metabolized to pharmacologically active metabolites, which are then further
    metabolized and eliminated. Active metabolites prolong the duration of the
    antiepileptic effect.

    Most antiepileptic drugs act as
    inducers of the liver enzymes and enhance their own rate of metabolism.
    (Antiepileptic drug info.)
  18. Increase the sensitivity of GABAa receptors.

    Produce antiepileptic effects.

    Produce side effects: sedation, drowsiness, memory impairment, ataxia, cognitive impairments.

    Drug-interaction: alcohol.

    Induce tolerance: both metabolic and cellular tolerance.

    Induce physical dependence.

    Induce psychological dependence.
  19. Increase the sensitivity of GABAa receptors.

    Produce antiepileptic effects with
    less sedation than barbiturates.

    Produce side effects: sedation,
    drowsiness, ataxia, cognitive impairment, amnesia.

    Drug-interaction: alcohol.

    Induce low incidence of dependence.
  20. Produces antiepileptic effects.

    Produces side effects: reduction of
    white blood cells.

    Induces tolerance: metabolic
  21. Blocks NMDA receptors and Na+ ion channels.
  22. A.Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): is marked by chronic and uncontrollable feelings of anxiety.

    B.Phobias: are extreme feelings of fear that are triggered by particular objects or situations.

    C.Panic disorder: is marked by rapid-onset attacks of extreme fear and severe physical symptoms.

    D.Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): is marked by recurring, uncontrollable, anxiety-producing thoughts and repetitive acts.

    E.Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): is caused by exposure to a trauma, and is marked by intrusive memories of the traumatic event, avoidance of cues reminding of the trauma, and constant hyper-arousal.
    Anxiety disorders
  23. Benzodiazepines:

    Diazepam (Valium)

    Chlordiazepoxide (Librium)

    Lorazepam (Ativan)

    Alprazolam (Xanax)

    Serotonin Agonists:

    Clomipramine (Anafranil)

    Fluoxetine (Prozac)

    Venlafaxine (Effexor)

    Buspirone  (BuSpar)
  24. Benzodiazepines:

    Some benzodiazepines are metabolized to pharmacologically inactive products which are eliminated.

    Some benzodiazepines are metabolized to pharmacologically active products which are further metabolized and then eliminated.

    The elderly have a reduced ability to metabolize long-acting benzodiazepines and their active metabolites.

    Serotonin agonists:

    Some serotonin agonists are
    metabolized to pharmacologically inactive products which are eliminated.

    Some serotonin agonists are
    metabolized to pharmacologically active products which are further metabolized
    and then eliminated.
    Pharmacokinetics of anxiolytics
  25. Drugs reduce anxiety through one of the two mechanisms:

    Enhancing GABA neurotransmission at limbic structures including amygdala, orbitofrontal
    cortex, and insula.

    Enhancing serotonin neurotransmission.
    Pharmacodynamics of anxiolytics
  26. Increases the sensitivity of GABAa receptors.


    Alleviate anxiety and fear with rapid onset of anxiolytic effects.

    Produce side effects: sedation, drowsiness, ataxia, cognitive impairments, slurredspeech, amnesia, and symptoms of dementia.

    Drug-interaction: alcohol.

    Produce dependence.
  27. Clomipramine and Venlafaxine: blocks reuptake of 5-HT and NE.

    Fluoxetine: blocks reuptake of 5-HT.

    Buspirone: is a 5-HT1A receptor agonist.


    Clomipramine; a tricyclic antidepressant.
    -Alleviates anxiety and fear but with high dropout rate due to adverse side effects.

    -Produces side effects: drowsiness, dry mouth, constipation, increased sweating, blurred vision, light-headedness, headache, dizziness, tremors.

    Fluoxetine: a SSRI-type antidepressant.
    –Alleviates anxiety and fear.

    Venlafaxine: a bicyclic antidepressant.
    –Alleviates anxiety and fear without producing sedation.

    –Alleviates anxiety and fear without producing significant sedation and drowsiness and with gradual onset of anxiolytic effects.

    –Does not produce amnesia and mental confusion.

    –Does not potentiate the effects of alcohol, benzodiazepines, or other CNS sedatives.

    –Exhibits little potential for addiction or abuse.
    Serotonin agonists
  28. –Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta)

    –Amphetamines (Dexedrine, Adderall)

    –Bupropion (Wellbutrin)

    –Buspirone (BuSpar)

    –Atomoxetine (Strattera)
    Pharmacological treatments of ADHD
  29. –Methylphenidate



    –GHB (Xyrem)
    Pharmacological treatments of narcolepsy
Card Set
Psychopharmachology Exam 2
Study set for exam 2.