What is Epithelial Tissue? And it's functions.
Functions is that it covers the surfaces, lines, cavities, secretes substances as glands.
4 Types of Tissues
What is meant by "the anatomical position"?
The anatomical position is the body is facing forward. Hands palms are facing forward. Feet are flat and pointing forwards. "Assume the Anatomical Position"
What are Directional Terms ?
They include Superior & Inferior, Anterior & Posterior (Ventral & Dorsal), Medial & Lateral, Proximal & Distal, Deep & Superficial
Superior & Inferior
Highest & lowest
Anterior & Posterior
- (Ventral & Dorsal)
- In front of & Back of
Medial & Lateral
Close to the mid-line & furthest from mid-line
Proximal & Distal
Closest to attachment & furthest from attachment
Deep & superficial
closest to the cent and furthest from the center
Three body planes
- Frontal/Coronal (posterior and anterior ends)
- median/Saggital (Runs through the front to back)
- Median/Midsaggitial (Runs through to make the equal the left and right regions)
- Transverse plane (The top and bottom)
- Cranial cavities
- Vertebral/Spinal cavity
- Dorsal Body Cavity:
- The dorsal body cavity has two subdivisions, which are continuous with
- each other. The cranial cavity is the space inside the bony skull. The
- brain is well protected because it occupies the cranial cavity. The
- spinal cavity extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the
- vertebral column. The spinal cord, which is a continuation of the brain,
- is protected by the vertebrae, which surround the spinal cavity.
- The ventral body cavity is much larger than the dorsal cavity. It
- contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen. Like the
- dorsal cavity, the ventral body cavity is subdivided.
- The superior thoracic cavity is separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by a
- dome-shaped muscle, the diaphragm. The organs in the thoracic cavity
- (lungs, heart, etc.) are somewhat protected by the rib cage.
- The cavity inferior to the diaphragm is the abdominopelvic cavity. Some prefer to
- subdivide it into a superior abdominal cavity, containing the stomach,
- liver, intestines, etc., and an inferior pelvic cavity, with the
- reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum. However, there is no actual
- physical structure dividing the abdominopelvic cavity.
is located in the Ventral Cavity
- mediastinum - The closed sterile anatomical space, not lined by a
- serous membrane, a subdivision of the ventral body cavity and of the thoracic
- cavity, which houses the heart in its pericardial sac, the great vessels, the
- trachea, the esophagus, and the thymus; it is located medially between the two
- pleural cavities to the right and left and between the thoracic vertebral column
- and the sternum.
Dorsal Body Cavity
- Cranial Body Cavity
- Vertebral/Spinal Body Cavity
Ventral body Cavities?
- Thoracic cavity
- thoracic cavity - The closed, partially membrane-lined sterile
- anatomical space, a subdivision of the ventral body cavity, which houses the
- lungs, heart, and the organs of the mediastinum; its linings are the three
- serous membranes known as the pleural membranes and the pericardial membrane; it
- is located medially on the anterior of the trunk and housed within the confines
- of the rib cage; it provides a protected space for those organs.
- abdominopelvic cavity - The closed, membrane-lined sterile anatomical
- space which houses various internal organs, particularly those of the digestive
- system; its lining is a serous membrane, the peritoneal membrane; it is located
- medially on the anterior of the trunk, inferior to the thoracic cavity, and
- housed within the confines of the trunk musculature; it is arbitrarily
- subdivided into (1) an abdominal cavity containing the stomach, liver,
- intestines, and spleen (2) a pelvic cavity containing some of the reproductive
- organs, the urinary bladder, and the distal colon; it provides a protected space
- for those organs.
- pelvic cavity - The partially closed, membrane-lined sterile
- anatomical space which houses some of the reproductive organs, the urinary
- bladder, and the distal colon; its lining is a serous membrane, a portion of the
- peritoneal membrane; it is located inferiorly within the abdominopelvic cavity,
- bounded superiorly by the abdominal cavity, with which it is continuous, and
- inferiorly by the walls of the pelvic girdle and its musculature; it provides a
- protected space for those organs.
4 Abdominal quadrants
- Left Upper Quadrant
- (LUQ), Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ), Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ),
- and Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ).
4 quadrants and its organs