1. Autonomous Ego Functions?
    Heinz Hartmann, an Ego psychologist, he maitained that the capacities of the ego and id is present at birth, having evolved in the human species as part of the process of adaptation. He saw the ego as having its own independent source of energy and as developing independetly of instinctual drives and internal conflicts. He believes that ego strives for adaptation, competence, mastery.
  2. Defense Mechanisms?
    Repression, regression, projection, reaction formation, displacement, sublimation, denial, introjection, rationalization, undoing.  When conflict ariseds between id and superego, the individual experiences anxiety.  The anxiety is a signal to the individual (to the ego) to do something to alleviated and the disturbing impulse is kept at bay.
  3. Ego-Oriented Approaches to Treatment?
    Place greater emphasis on the present than the past and attempts to increase awarence of and conscious control over behavior. Assessment is holistic, focusing on environemental stressors, accessibility to needed resources, trauma, developement difficulties, and deficits in ego functioning.
  4. Ego-supportive?
    Interventions restore, maintain and enhance adaptive functioning (ego mastery or the ability to mediate between basic primal needs of an individual and the higher moral standard). Ego-supportive interventions are used with the clients who have deficits in ego strength, low tolerance for anxiety and poor impulse control.
  5. Ego-modifying?
    Interventions involves modification of basic personality patterns. Treatment focuses on the past and the present, as well as the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Therapists seek to help clients use increased insight and conflict resolution. The intervention are nondirective and use interpretation.  It also are typically used with those having good ego strenght to address maladaptive patterns.
  6. Object Relations Models?
    Came from the classical psychoanaltyic theory and ego psychology.  It is a psychodynamic approach to therapy.  The focus is on early childhood experiences and relationships with significant others in childhood, in particular, Mother, as well as the resulting personality structure. Therapy is focused on childhood relationships and experiences that influenced personality development.
  7. Melanie Klein?
    a psychoanalytic writer who based her theorizing about human development specifically on her work with the children, saw the internal world of the child focused more on relationship with others than on instincts and drives.
  8. Splitting?
    Melanie Klein, the child typically becomes aware that the same person can have both positive and negative qualities. Splitting can also be seen as a defense mechanism in older individuals. In order to relate to significant others, an individual, may "split" the significant other into two parts, good and bad, in an effort to cope with the painful feeling associated with that person.
Card Set
Psychoanalytic, Psychotherapy, Psychodynamic, Ego Psychology