Stage 1 sleep
The state of transition between wakefulness and sleep. Characterized by relatively rapid, low-amplitude brain waves. Lasts only a few minutes
Stage 2 sleep
A sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of "sleep spindles". Half of the total sleep time of those in their 20's
Stage 3 sleep
A sleep characterized by slow brain waves, with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern than in stage 2 sleep.
Stage 4 sleep
The deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation.
Momentary interruptions of sharply pointed, spiky waves
REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep
Sleep occupying 20% of an adult's sleeping time, characterized by increased heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate; erections; eye movements; and the experience of dreaming. The major muscles of the body appear to be paralyzed.
REM Rebound Effect
People deprived of REM sleep, by being awakened every time they begin to display the physiological signs of that stage, show a rebound effect when allowed to rest undisturbed. REM-deprived sleepers spend significantly more time in a REM sleep than they normally would.
Unconscious wish fulfillment theory
Sigmund Freud's theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers desire to see fulfilled
Latent Content of Dreams
According to Freud, the "disguised" meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects
Manifest Content of Dreams
According to Freud, the apparent story line of dreams
dreams for survival theory
The theory suggesting that dreams permit information that is critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep
Hobson's theory that the brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep that stimulates memories stored in the brain. Because we have a need to make sense of our world even while asleep, the brain takes these chaotic memories and weaves them into a logical story line, filling in the gaps to produce a rational scenario.
Difficulty sleeping. Could be due to a particular situation such as a loss of a job or it could have no obvious cause. Afflicts 1/3 of the population.
a condition in which a person has difficulty breathing while sleeping. Disturbed, fitful sleep, and a significant loss of REM sleep, as the person is constantly reawakened when the lack of oxygen becomes great enough to trigger a waking response. Cause extreme fatigue the next day.
Sudden awakenings from non-REM sleep that are accompanied by extreme fear, panic, and strong physiological arousal. Occurs during stage 4 sleep and less frequent than nightmares and occur in Non-REM sleep.
uncontrollable sleeping that occurs for short periods while a person is awake. People go from wakefulness to REM sleep, skipping the other stages.
biological processes that occur regularly on approximately a 24-hour cycle.
Fantasies that people construct while awake. Several areas of the brain that are associated with complex problem solving become activated during daydreaming, suggesting that daydreaming may lead to insights about problems
- exercise during the day and avoid naps
- choose a regular bedtime and stick to it
- avoid drinks with caffeine after lunch
- drink a glass of milk at bedtime
- avoid sleeping pills
- try not to sleep
A trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to the suggestions of others.
- Four steps:
- 1. Person is made comfortable in a quiet environment.
- 2. The hypnotist explains what is going to happen
- 3. The hypnotist tells the person to concentrate on a specific object or image
- 4. Once the subject is in a highly relaxed state, the hypnotist may make suggestions that the person interprets as being produced by hypnosis