1. The Ideology of Conservatism
    Peace Arrangements
    • a.      Peace arrangements of 1815= beginning of conservative reaction determined to contain the liberal and nationalist forces unleashed by the French Revolution
    •                                                               i.      Metternich and his kind were reps of the ideology known as conservatism.
  2. The Ideology of Conservatism
    • 1.      As modern political philosophy, conservatism dates from 1790 when Edmund Burke wrote Reflections on the Revolution in France in reaction to French Revolution, especially radical republican and democratic ideas
    • a.      Burke said that society was a contract, but state was nothing better than a partnership agreement
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      State was a partnership, but one between those living, dead, and to be born
    • 1.      No one generation has right to destroy partnership; each generation has duty to preserve and transmit it to the next
  3. The Ideology of Conservatism
    Burke advised?
    • a.      Burke advised against the violent overthrow of a government by revolution, but he didn’t reject all change
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Sudden change=unacceptable, but didn’t mean that there should never be gradual or evolutionary improvements
  4. The Ideology of Conservatism
    • 1.      Aside from Burke, was Frenchman Joseph de Maistre
    • a.      Influential spokesman for counterrevolutionary and authoritarian conservatism
    • b.      Espoused restoration of hereditary monarchy, which he regarded as divinely sanctioned institution
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Only absolute monarchy could guarantee order and avoid chaos from French Revolution
  5. The Ideology of Conservatism
    General Beliefs
    • a.      Favored obedience to political authority
    • b.      Believed organized religion crucial to social order
    • c.       Hated revolutionary upheavals
    • d.      Unwilling to accept either the liberal demands for civil liberties and representative governments or the nationalistic aspirations generated by French revolutionary era
  6. The Ideology of Conservatism
    After 1815
    • 1.      Community took precedence over individual rights; society must be organized and ordered, and tradition was best guide for order
    •                                                             ii.      After 1815, the political philosophy of conservatism was supported by hereditary monarchs, government bureaucracies, landowning aristocracies, and revived churches, whether Protestant or Catholic
    • 1.      Conservative forces appeared dominant after 1815, both internationally and domestically
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