immobility a nursing challenge

  1. Immobility 
    • may be temporary, partial or permanent 
    • factors that alter mobility: 
    •     disease or trauma 
    •     imposed immobility 
    •     voluntary 

    EVERY body system is affected 
  2. Physiologic affects of exercise on the Cardiovascular system 
    • increased oxygen demand 
    • increased heart rate 
    • increased blood pressure 
    • increase circulation of fibromyosin 
  3. Immobility on CV 
    • increased cardiac workload 
    • predisposition to thrombi 
    • increased rate of coagulation(clot faster) 
    • increased in orthostatic hypotension 
    • dependent edema(fluid edema) 
  4. Affects of exercise on respiratory system 
    • increased depth and rate of respiration 
    • increased gas exchange 
    • increased rate of CO2 exhaled 
  5. Immobility results on respiratory 
    • decreased rate and depth 
    • increased secretions(pooling in the lungs) 
    • atelectasis- alveoli collapse and don't expand 
    • hypostatic pneumonia (caused by lying, virus settles in lungs ) 
    • respiratory acidosis(decrease PH ) 
  6. Effects of exercise on musculoskeletal system 
    • increased muscle mass, tone and strength 
    • increased joint mobility 
  7. immobility on MSK 
    • atrophy(3% loss of strength per day) 
    • contractures(foot drop) 
    • ankylosis(fixation /immobilization of joint) 
    • disuse osteoporosis (no wt. bearing) 
  8. Effects of exercise on metabolic rate 
    • increases metabolic rate 
    • burn more calories 
  9. immobility results on metabolic changes 
    • decreased oxygen demand 
    • decreased appetite 
    • negative nitrogen balance (muscle wasting catabolism) 
    • CAUTION: fever and trauma may increase metabolic demand 
  10. Effects of exercise on GI system 
    • increased appetite 
    • increased intestinal tone 
  11. immobility results GI 
    • appetite disturbances 
    • altered protein metabolism (protein in urine) 
    • poor digestion(naseau) 
    • slowed peristalsis(constipation, bowel obstruction, paralytic ileus-portion of ilium not functioning) ....common after surgery 
  12. Effects of exercise : Urinary system 
    • increased blood circulation 
    • increased blood flow to kidneys 
  13. immobility : Urinary 
    • urinary stasis(urine is not passing as fast--infection can settle) 
    • increased risk of bacterial growth 
    • predisposition to stone(calculus) formation (renal calculi) 
    • incontinence (urinary retention)
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immobility a nursing challenge