ch8 pt.2

  1. what makes up the vertebral column?
    • 24 vertebrae 
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
  2. what does the vertebral column do?
    • provides vertical support for the body
    • supports weight of the head 
    • maintains an upright body position
    • houses and protects the spinal cord
  3. what are the 5 divisions of the vertebral column?
    • cervical
    • thoracic
    • lumbar
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
  4. what forms the bones of the neck?
    cervical vertebrae
  5. how many vertebrae are in the cervical division?
    7 c1-c7
  6. what does the c1 articulate with?
    the occipital condyle
  7. what does the c7 articulate with?
    the first thoracic vertebra
  8. what forms the superior region of the back?
    thoracic vertebrae
  9. what also articulates with the ribs?
    thoracic vertebra
  10. how many vertebrae are in the thoracic division?
    12 T1-T12
  11. what does T12 articulate with?
    first lumbar vertebra
  12. what forms the inferior concave region (small of back)?
    lumbar vertebrae
  13. how many vertebrae are in the lumbar region?
    5 L1-L5
  14. L5 articulates inferiorly with the first ________ vertebra
  15. Sacrum is formed from ____ _____ vertebrae
    five sacral
  16. the sacrum laterally articulates with the two ______ ______
    hip bones
  17. what is commonly called the "tailbone"
  18. what forms the coccyx?
    formed from 4 cocygeal vertebrae
  19. when do the coccyx start to unite?
    during puberty
  20. what does the Co1 articulate inferiorly with?
    the end of sacrum
  21. what are the 4 spinal curvatures?
    • thoracic
    • cervical
    • lumbar
    • sacral
  22. what do the 4 spinal curvatures give the column?
    • flexibility
    • support
  23. what are the 2 primary curves?
    • thoracic
    • sacral curvatures
  24. what is the only curves present in the newborn?
    primary cuves
  25. when do the secondary curves appear?
    after birth
  26. what do the secondary curves help?
    helps shift trunk weight over to the legs
  27. what is the secondary curves and when do they appear?
    • cervical curve ( when child is able to hold up head (3-4 months))
    • lumbar curve ( learning to stand and walk (by first year of life)
  28. what is kyphosis?
    hunchback thoracic curvature
  29. what is lordosis?
    exaggerated lumbar curvature
  30. what is scoliosis?
    abnormal lateral curvature
  31. where do pedicles originate from when speaking about the vertebra?
    postereolateral margins of body
  32. what allows the vertebral column to bend?
    intervertebral discs
  33. intervertebral discs are made out of an outer ring of fibrocartilage called _____ and an inner gelatinous region called _____
    • anulus fibrosus
    • nucleus pulposus
  34. what supports only the weight of the head?
    cervical vertebrae
  35. the atlas of the neck lacks what two things?
    • the spinous process
    • body
  36. where is the atlas?
  37. what permits the head to shake yes and no?
    • atlas= yes
    • axis=no
  38. where is the axis?
  39. in the thoracic vertebrae what lacks transverse costal facets?
  40. when does the xiphoid process ossify?
    age 40
  41. costal cartilage of ribs_______ fused to ______ of ____ ____
    • 8-10
    • costal cartilage
    • rib 7
  42. What is the pectoral girdle?
    clavicles and the scapulae
  43. what is the "collarbone"?
  44. what forms the sternoclavicular joint?
    the sternal end of clavical articulating with the manubrium
  45. sternal end of clavical articulates with...
  46. acromial end of clavicle articulates with the...
    acromion of the scapula
  47. what forms the acromioclavicular joint?
    the acromial end of clavical articulating with the acromion of the scapula
  48. which side of the clavical has grooves allowing for muscle attachment?
    the inferior surface of the clavicle
  49. where is the conoid tubercle?
    rouch tubercle on the inferior surface near acromial end
  50. what is the costal tuberosity?
    inferiorly located prominence on sternal end
  51. radial tuberosity is an attachment site for _____ ______
    biceps brachii
  52. what is supination?
    • in anatomical position
    • radius on lateral side
    • ulna on medial side
  53. what is pronation?
    • radius and ulna pivoting
    • palm facing posteriorly
  54. what is "carrying angle"?
    upper limbs extended and forarms supinated
  55. what are carpals?
    bones that form wrist
  56. what are the 8 carpals?
    • casphoid
    • lunate
    • hamate
    • pisiform
    • trapezium
    • trapezoid
    • capitate
  57. what are metacarpals?
    bones in the palm of the hand
  58. what are proximal phalanx?
    articulating phalanx with the metacarpals
  59. what are distal phalanx?
    tip of fingers
  60. what are middle phalanx?
    between proximal and distal phalanges
  61. what is the pelvis composed of?
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
    • right and left ossa coxae
  62. what does the pelvis do?
    supports the viccera in inferior part of ventral body cavity
  63. what does the pelvic girdle refer to?
    only either the right and left ossa coxae
  64. what is the hip bone?
    os coxae
  65. os coxae are formed by three bones. what are they?
    • illium
    • ishium
    • pubis
  66. when do the os coxae fuse
    between ages 13-15
  67. the os coxae articulates _____ with ______ at ______ ______
    • posteriorly 
    • sacrum
    • sacroiliac joint
  68. the femur articulates with the...
  69. what is the c-shaped smooth surface on acetabulum?
    lunate surface
  70. the lunate surface articulates with the.....
    femur head
  71. out of all 3 bones of the osa coxae which is the largest?
  72. what forms the superior region of the os coxae?
  73. waht supports the weight of the body when seated?
    postereolateral border of the ichium
  74. where are the ischial tuberosites located?
    posterolateral border of ischium
  75. how do male and female pelves differ with respect to shape of the pubis, subpubic angle, greater sciatic notch, and overall shape of the pelvis?
    females= pubis is longer and almost rectangular, subpubic angle is wider and more convex, greater sciatic notch is wider, and the pelvis is shallower and wider
  76. what are the components of the lower limb?
    • thigh 
    • leg 
    • foot
  77. what are the bones of the upper limb?
    • 1 femur
    • 1 patella
    • 1 tibia and fibula
    • 7 tarsal bones
    • 5 metatarsal bones
    • 14 phalanges
  78. what is the longest, heaviest, strongest bone in the body?
  79. what is a fovea?
    tiny depression within head of the femur
  80. how many tarsal bones are there?
  81. what are the 7 tarsal bones?
    • talus 
    • calcaneus
    • navicular bone
    • medial 
    • intermediate
    • lateral cuneiform
    • cuboid
  82. _____ forms arched sole of foot
  83. phalanges of the foot have ____ amount of bones
  84. what is a hallux?
    the great toe
  85. arches help support what?
    the weight of the body
  86. medial lonituginal arch is the ______ of the three arches
  87. medial longitudinal arch extends from _____ to _____
    • heel 
    • great toe
  88. lateral longitudinal arch extends between ______ ____ and the _______ formed by _____, ______ _____, _______ & ____
    • little toe 
    • heel
    • calcaneus
    • cuboid bones
    • metatarsals IV
    • V
  89. where is the transverse arch?
    • runs perpendicular to longitudinal arches
    • formed from distal row of tarsals and bases of all metatarsals
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ch8 pt.2