1. 2 dimensions of leadership behavior
    - directive dimension, - supportive dimension
  2. Directive behaviors (task)
    help group members accomplish goals by giving directions, - one way commmunication what is to be done and who is responsible for doing it
  3. Supportive behaviors (relationship)
    help group members feel comfortable about themselves coworkers and the situation. - two way communication and responses that show social and emotional support to others. ex: asking for input, sharing info, solving problems and are mostly job related
  4. 2 variables that contribute to subordinate development
    - low, - high
  5. Low development
    have little skill for the task at hand but believe that they ahve the motivation or confidence to get the job done
  6. High development
    interested and confident in their work and know how to do the task
  7. 4 (S1-S4) leadership styles
    - figure 5.1 - four categories of directive and supportive behaviors
  8. S1
    - directing style, - high directive - low supportive style, - leader focuses on goal achievement, - less time spent on supportive behaviors; - leader give sinstructions about how goals are to be achieved by subordinates and then supervises them
  9. S2
    - coaching style, - high directive - high supportive, leader focuses on both achieving goals and meeting subordinates socioeconomical needs, - leader involves himself with subordinates and give encouragement for subordinate input, - extension of S1 and requires leader make the final decision of what and how goal accomplishment
  10. S3
    - supporting style, - high supportive - low directive, - leader does not focus exclusively on goals but uses esupportive behaviors to bring out employees skill around the task to be accomplished, - includes listening, praising, giving input, - leader controls a day to day decisions and remains available for problem solving, - quick to recognition and social support to subordinates
  11. S4
    - delegating style, - low supportive - low directive, - leader offers less task input and social support to facilitate empployee confidence and motivation to the task, - leader lessens involve metn in planning and goal clarification, - leder gives control to subordinates and refrains from intervening with unnecessary social support
  12. 4 (D1-D4) subordinate developmental levels
    developmental levels
  13. D1
    - low competence & high commitment, - new to the task and do now know exactly how to do it but are excited about the challenge of it
  14. D2
    - some competence & low commitment, - they have started learn a job but also have lose some of their initial motivation about the job
  15. D3
    - mod to high competence & low commitment, - they have essentially developed the skills for the job but are uncertain to whether they can accomplish the task by themselves
  16. D4
    high competence & high commitment, - they have the skills to do the job and the motivation to get it done
  17. Which leader style goes with each developmental level
  18. D1
    S1, - directing style
  19. D2
    S2, - coaching style
  20. D3
    S3, - supporting style
  21. D4
    S4, - delegating style
  22. 2 tasks of a leader using situational leadership approach
  23. 1st task
    - diagnose/determine the nature of the situation, identify the developmental level of employee
  24. 2nd task
    leader needs to adapt his or her style to the prescribed leadership style represented in the SLII model
  25. Evaluation of situation/leaderhship style
  26. Strengths
    - marketplace approval, - pracicality, - prescriptive value, - leader flexibility, - differential treatment
  27. Marketplace approval
    - has stood the test of time, - used to train leaders, - more than 400 fortune 500 companies use it
  28. Practicality
    - easy to understand, - intuitively appealing, - easily applied to a variety of settings
  29. Prescriptive value
    - tells you what you should and should not do in various context
  30. Leader flexibility
    - leaders need to find out about subordinates and adapt their style, - cannot lead using a single style, - recognizes employees act differently performing same tasks
  31. Differential treatment
    - reminds us to treat each subordinate differently based on task at hand and seek to improve opportunities
  32. Criticisms
    - lack of an empirical foundation, - unclear developmental/need levels, - conceptualization of commitment, - demographics, - one to one vs group
  33. Lack of an empirical foundation
    - only a few ersearch studies have been conducted to justify the assumptions
  34. Unclear developmental/need levels
    - does not make clear how commitment is combined with competence to form the developmental levels
  35. Conceptualization of commitment
    - does not explain how competence and commitment are weighted across different development levels
  36. Demographics
    - fails to account for certain demographic characteristics
  37. One to one vs Group
    - does not address the issue of one to one vs group leadership
  38. Elite case study, what leadership style should the main character adopt and why?
  39. 2 dimensions of leadership behavior
    - task motivated, - relationship motivated
  40. Task-motivated
    leaders are concerned primarily with reaching a goal
  41. Relationship motivated
    leaders are concerned with developing close interpersonal relationships
  42. How leader behavior is measured
    - low LPC's, - high LPC's
  43. Low LPC
    task motivated
  44. High LPC
    relationship motivated
  45. 3 variables that contribute to the situation
    - leader member relations, - task structure, - position power
  46. Leader member relations
    referes to the group atmosphere and the degree of confidence, loyalty and attraction of followers for leader; - good = high degree of subordinate trust, liking, positive relationship, - poor = little or no subordinate trust, friction exists, unfriendly
  47. Task structure
    concerns the degree to which requirements of a task are clear and spelled out. - low structure, - high structure
  48. Position power
    designates the amount of authority a leader has to reward or punish followers; - strong power = authority to hire or fire, gives raises in rank or pay, - weak power = no authority to hire or fire, gives reaises in rank or no pay
  49. How does each variable determine the favorableness of the situation
    - most favorable, - least favorable, - moderatelyl favorable
  50. Most favorable
    - good leader follower relations, high power, - defined tasks (high structure), - strong leader position power
  51. Least favorable
    - poor leader follower relations, - unstructured tasks (low structure), - weak leader position power
  52. Moderately favorable
    - fall in between these extremes
  53. Which leader style matches each combination fo the 3 variables
  54. Low LPC score
    - very favorable = situations going smoothly, - very unfavorable = situations out of control
  55. High LPC score
    - moderately favorable = situations with some degree of certainty; not completely in or out of leaders control
  56. Low LPC (task oriented)
    categories 1, 2, 3, 8
  57. High LPC (relationship oriented)
    categories 4, 5, 6, 7
  58. Middle LPC
    categories 1, 2, 3
  59. Evaluate situation and suggest leadership style
  60. Strengths
    - empirical support, - broadened understanding, - predictive, - not an all or nothing approach, - leadership profiles
  61. Empirical support
    - many researchers have tested it and found it to be valid and reliable
  62. Broadened understanding
    - forces us to consider the impact of situations on leaders
  63. Predictive
    - provides useful info about the type of leadership that is most likely to be effective in certain contexts
  64. Not an all or nothing approach
    - does not require that peopel be effective in all situations
  65. Leadership profiles
    - provides data leader styles to develop profiles
  66. Criticisms
    - fails to fully explain why, - scale validity, - cumbersome, - issues with a mismatch
  67. Fails to fully explain why
    - people with certain leadership styles are more effective in some situations than in others "black box problem"
  68. Scale validity
    - LPC scale does not seem valid on the suface nor does it correlate well with other leadership measures, - due to the reason that it asks to measure evaluations of another person gets confusing of whether least preferred or least liked
  69. Cumbersome
    - difficult because it entails assessing the leaders style and three complex situational variables each using a different instrument
  70. Issues with a mismatch
    - does not teach leaders who mismatch how to adapt their styles to improve leadership
  71. Apply contingency leadership approach to UTAH SYMPHONY & OPERA
  72. What was learn about this theory from applying it
  73. what additional psychological concept this theory brings to understanding leadership
    - motivational prcinciples, - expectancy theory, motivation: the desire within a person causing that person to act to reach a goal
  74. Descriptive
  75. Prescriptive
    situational approach, path goal theory
  76. Predictive
    contingency approach
  77. Fieldler
    contingency theory
  78. Hill
    need for affiliation
  79. Rotter
    locus of control
  80. House
    path goal theory
  81. Hershey
    situational approach
  82. Blanchard
    situational approach
  83. Dessler
    path goal theory
  84. Evans
    path goal theory
  85. Subordinate development
    situational approach
  86. Leader Member relations
    contingency theory
  87. Task structure
    contingency theory
  88. Position Power
    contingecy theory
  89. Need for affiliation
    path goal theory
  90. Preferences for structure
    path goal theory
  91. Desires for control
    path goal theory
  92. Self-perceived level of task ability
    path goal theory
  93. Design of subordinates task
    path goal theory
  94. Organization's formal authority system
    path goal theory
  95. Primary work group of subordinates
    path goal theory
  96. Leader adapts behavior to situation
    situational approach
  97. Leader interact with a situation that matches behavioral style
    contingency theory,
  98. Low task structure
    - requirements/rules = not clearly stated/known, - path to accomplish = has many alternatives, - task completion = cannot be clearly demonstrated, - unlimited number = correct solutions exist
  99. High task structure
    - requirements/rules = are clearly stated/known, - path to accomplish = has few alternatives, - task completion = can be clearly demonstrated, - limited number = correct solutions exist
  100. Subordinates will be motivated if they believe:
    - they are capable of performing their work, - that their efforts will result in a certain outcome, - that the payoffs for doing their work are worthwhile
  101. Basic idea behind path goal theory
    - centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals - goal is to enhance employee performance and satisfaction by focusin on employee motivation
  102. 4 dimensions of leadership behavior
    - directive leadership, - supportive leadership, - participative leadership, - achiement oriented leadership
  103. DIrective leadership (similar to initiating structure & telling)
    leaders who gives subordinates task instruction including: - what is expected of them, - how task is to be done, - timeline for task completion
  104. Supportive leadership (consideration)
    refers to being friendly and approachable as a leader and includes: - attending to well being & human needs of subordinates, - using supportive behavior to make work environment pleasant, - treating subordinates as equals & give them respect for their status
  105. Participative leadership (like D4/S4 delegating)
    - leader who invites subordinates to share in the decision making, - a participative leader: - consults with subordinates, - seeks their ideas/opinions, - integrates their input into group/organizational decisions
  106. Achievement oriented leadership
    - leader who challenges subordinates to perform work at the highest level, - an achievement oriented leader: - establishes a high standard of excellence for subordinates, - seeks continuous improvement, - demonstrates a high degree of confidence in subordinates ability to establish and achieve challenging goals
  107. 4 characteristics of subordinates that contribute to the situation
    - strong need for affiliation, - preference for structure, - desire for control - perception of their own ability specfic task
  108. Strong need for affiliation
    - friendly and concerned leadership is a source of satisfaction, - supportive leadership
  109. Preferene for structure
    - dogmatic and authoritarian, - leadership provides psychological structure, task clarity and greater sense of certainty in work setting, - directive leadership
  110. Desire for control
    - internal locus of control, - external locus of control
  111. Internal locus of control
    - leadership that allows subordinates to feel in charge of their work and makes them an integral part of the decision making process, - participative leadership
  112. External locus of contrl
    - leadership that parallels subordinates feelings that outside forces control their circumstances, - directive leadership
  113. Perceptions of their own abiilty specific task
    - as perception of ability and competence goes up need for highly directive leadership goes down, - directive leadership may become redundant, possibly exessively controlling
  114. 3 characteristics of work setting that contribute ott he istuation
    - design of subordinates task, - organization's formal authoirty system, - primary work group of subordinates
  115. Task characteristics
    - unclear and ambiguous, - highly repretitive, - weak formal authority, - nonsupportive/weak group norms
  116. Unclear and ambiguous
    leader needs to provide structure
  117. Highly repetitive
    leader needs to provide support to maintain subordinate motivation
  118. Weak formal authority
    if formal authority system is weak, the leader needs to assist subordinates by making rules and work requirements clear
  119. Nonsupportive/weak group norms
    leader needs to help build cohesiveness and role responsibility
  120. Obstacles
    - anything in the work setting that gest in the way of subordinates, - they create excessive uncertainties, frustrations or therats for subordinates
  121. Leaders responsibility is to help subordinates by
    - removing the obstacles, - helping subordinates around them
  122. Directive leadership
    - dogmatic, - authoritarian group members
  123. Supportive leadership
    - unsatisfied, - need affiliation, - need human touch group members
  124. Participative
    - autonomous, - need for control, - need for clarity group members
  125. Achievement oriented
    - high expectations, - need to excel group members
  126. Strengths
    - useful theoretical framework, - integrates motivation, - practical model
  127. Useful theoretical framework
    - understands how various leadership behaviors affect subordinates satisfaction and work performance
  128. Integrates motivation
    - no other theory integrates motivation
  129. Practical model
    - provides an overarching purpose of leadership is to guide and coach subordinates as they move along the path to achieve a goal
  130. Criticisms
    - interpreting is confusing, - empirical partial support, - fails to explain the relationship, - one way event
  131. Interpreting is confusing
    - too many different aspects together makes it confusing
  132. Empirical partial support
    - only valid with partial support
  133. Fails to explain the relationship
    - fails to explain relationship between leadership behavior and owkrer motivation
  134. One way event
    - subordinates may become easily dependent on leader
  135. Leader matches style to subordinates and work setting
    path goal theory derived from expectancy theory (motivation)
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