Midterm #1

  1. Industrial Melanism
    The darkness of skin, feathers, or fur acquired by a population of animals living in an industrial region.
  2. Culture
    Characteristics of a particular group of people defined by everything from language, religion, food, social habits, music, and arts.
  3. Ribosome
    Particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells
  4. Rh (Rhesus factor)
    An antigen occurring on the red blood cells of living organisms, which is + and - ABO.
  5. Downs Syndrome
    A congenital disorder caused by an extra 21st chromosome.
  6. Chromosome
    the idea that the earth has experienced a series of catastrophic destructions and creations and that fossil forms found in each layer of the earth are bounded by a creation and destruction event.
  7. Turners Syndrome
    A chromosomal disorder affecting wherein one of the two x chromosomes is defective or completely absent.
  8. Polar bodies
    A cell that develops in oogenesis that contains little cytoplasm and does not develop into a mature ovum.
  9. Recombination
    new combinations of alleles on the same chromosome as a result of crossing-over.
  10. Uniformitarianism
    Principle that states that physical forces working today to alter the earth were also in force and working in the same way in former times.
  11. tRNA
    within the ribosome, a form of RNA that transports amino acids into the positions coded in the mRNA.
  12. Polypeptide Chain
    any of various natural or synthetic compounds containing two or more amino acids, which forms protein.
  13. PTC (phenylthiocarbamide)
    an artificially created substance whose main use is in the detecting the ability to taste it; ability to taste ptc is inherited as a dominant.
  14. Inbreeding
    breeding of related individuals within an isolated or closed group of organisms.
  15. Anticodon 
    a sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in transfer RNA that binds to a corresponding codon in a messenger RNAand designates a specific amino acid during  protein synthesis.
  16. nucleotide
    biological molecules that form the building blocks of nucleic acids and serve to carry packets of energy within the cell.
  17. eukaryotic
    organism that has nuclues.
  18. Gamete
    a sex cell produced by meiosis that contains one copy of a chromosome set (23 chromosomes in human). In a bisexual animal, the sex cel is either a sperm or an ovum.
  19. nondisjunction
    an error of meiosis in which the members of a pair of chromosomes move to the same pole rather than moving to opposite poles.
  20. Polygenic
    the result of the interaction of several genes.
  21. Codominance
    the situation in which the heterozygous condition both alleles are expressed in the phenotype.
  22. Nucleotide
    the basic building block of nucleic acids; a nucleotide is composed of a 5 carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), a phosphate and a base.
  23. Inversion
    form of chromosome aberration in which parts of a chromosome break and reunite in a reversed order. No genetic material is lost or gained, but the positions of the involved alleles are altered.
  24. Pyramidines
    base found in nucleic acids that consist of a single ring of carbon and nitrogen; in DNA, thymine and cytosine; in RNA, uracil and cytosine.
  25. Gene
    a section of DNA that has a specific function
  26. Amino Acids
    a type of molecule that forms the basic building block of proteins
  27. Phenotype
    the observible and measurable characteristics of an organism
  28. Genetic fitness
    The reproductive success of a genotype, usually measured as the number of offspring produced by an individual that survive to reproductive age relative to the average for the population..
  29. Natural Selection
    differential fertility and mortality of variants within a population
  30. Genotype
    the genetic constitution of an individual
  31. Autosome
    a chromosome other than a sex hormone
  32. Somatic
    of the body; bodily; physical
  33. Mutation
    An alteration of genetic material
  34. Spindle fibers
    Spindle fibers are aggregates of microtubules that move chromosomes during cell division.
  35. Panmixia
    random mating
  36. Centromere
    a structure in the chromosome holding the two chromatids together; during cell division, it is a site of attachement for the spindle fibers.
  37. Bases
    a subunit of a nucleotype that makes up the DNA and RNA molecules. 

    ex. adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, uracil
  38. Diploid
    A diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes
  39. Uracil
    one of the bases found in RNA; pyramidine
  40. Nene
    A rare wild goose (Branta sandvicensis) of the Hawaiian Islands, having a grayish-brown body with a black face. Also called Hawaiian goose.
  41. fixity
    The state of being unchanging or permanent: "the fixity of his stare"
  42. Allele
    an alternate form of a gene.
  43. Ethnography
    qualitative research design aimed at exploring cultural phenomena
  44. cell
    the smallest unit able to perform all those activities collectively called life. all living organisms are either one cell, or composed of several cells.
  45. genetic drift
    the situation in a small population, in which the allelic frequencies of the F1 generation will defer from those of the parental generation, due to sampling error.
  46. Chromosome
    A body found in the nucleus of the cell containing the hereditary material.
  47. Silversword
    is a rare plant, part of the daisy family Asteraceae.
  48. mRNA
    form of RNA that copies the DNA code in the nucleus and transports it to the ribosome.
  49. Subfields of Anthropology
    cultural, linguistic, archaeology, evolution
  50. Dominance vs. Recessiveness
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    Mechanisms of recessive and dominant inheritance. 

    Recessive Inheritance: Both parents carry a normal gene (N), and a faulty, recessive, gene (n). The parents, although carriers, are unaffected by the faulty gene. Their offspring are affected, not affected, or carriers. This type of inheritance was first shown by Mendel.

    Dominant Inheritance: One parent has a single, faulty dominant gene (D), which overpowers its normal counterpart (d), affecting that parent. When the affected parent mates with an unaffected and non-carrier mate (dd), the offspring are either affected or not affected, but they are not carriers.
  51. Evolutionary change
    Charles Darwin knew that there was such a thing as heritable variation, but he did not know that there is such a thing as a gene, or that genes are found within DNA. However, in the twentieth century Darwinian evolutionary change and genetic change became recognized as one and the same thing. The key to understanding evolutionary change in plants and animals is to understand that it is generational change.
  52. Medelian traits
    In Mendelian inheritance, a child receiving a dominant allele from either parent will have the dominant form of the trait. Only those that received the recessive allele from both parents present with the recessive phenotype. Those that receive a dominant allele from one parent and a recessive allele from the other parent will have the dominant form of the trait. Purely Mendelian traits are a tiny minority of all traits, since most phenotypic traits exhibit incomplete dominance, codominance, and contributions from many genes.
  53. homoglogous chromosomes
    the chromosomes that make up a pair.
  54. meiosis vs. mitosis
    meiosis: form of cell division occurring in specialized tissues in the testes and ovaries that leads to the production of gametes or sex cells.

    mitosis: form of cell division whereby one-celled organisms divide and body cells divide in growth and replacement.
  55. focus of anthropology
    both biolgical and cultural characteristics and variation as well as biological and cultural evolution.
  56. sickle-cell anemia
    sickling of red blood cells, anemia, jaundice

    inheritance: dominant
  57. segregation vs. independent assortment
    segregation: in the formation of sex cells, the process in which paired hereditary factors serparate, forming sex cells contain either one of the other fact. 

    independent assortment: the inheritance patterns of differing traits are independent of one another. 

  58. heterozygote advantage.
    If a gene has more than one allele, such that members of the population with two different alleles of that gene (heterozygotes) are favored by natural selection over members of the population with two identical alleles of that gene, then we say that the gene exhibits heterozygote advantage.
  59. adaptive radiation
     process in which organisms diversify rapidly into a multitude of new forms
  60. Linnaeus 
    Karl Von Linne "father of taxonomy" ethnocentric- classified plants and animals into system category.
  61. C. Darwin
    "survival of the fittest" Proposed a compelling theory for the mechanism of organic evolution.
  62. Lamarck
    Lowest noblemen(chevallier meaning a horsed person) Principle of acquired characteristics that happen in your lifetime can be passed to the next generation. Proposed that inheretance is a mechanism.
  63. Malthus
    Malthus wrote that the human population is growing at a faster rate than food production which suggested that the human race was in danger.
  64. Lyell
    Synthesized information in the textbook "Principles of Geology". Popularized the principle of uniformitarianism.Principle that states that physical forces working today to alter the earth were also in force and working in the same way in former times.
  65. Mendell
    Basic Principles of Genetics: demonstrated that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follows particular patterns, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance.
  66. Wallace
    naturalist; determined that every animal is  part of a evolution processis.
  67. buffon
    French naturalist; Buffon was the father of all thought in natural history in the second half of the 18th century. Laid the foundation for later studies in biology, zoology, and comparative anatomy.
Card Set
Midterm #1
midterm #1 flashcard. anthropology