Chapter 8 speech science test

  1. Sound traveling through the vocal tract and radiated beyond the mouth into the atmosphere is known as
    Radiation Characteristic
  2. The formant frequencies are related to the volumes of the ____ and ___________ spaces.
    oral and pharyngeal spaces
  3. Containers with a larger volume will resonate at a _________ frequency and containers with a smaller volume will resonate at a ________ frequency.
    lower; higher
  4. The frequency of F1 is related to the __________ of the _____________ cavity as well as how tightly the vocal tract is constricted.
    volume; pharyngeal
  5. F2 frequency is related to the _________ of the ___________ cavity.
    length; oral
  6. F1 and F2 of different vowels vary systematically depending on tongue __________ and _____________.
    Height and advancement
  7. Do adult females have a longer or shorter vocal tract than adult males?
  8. A woman's vocal tract would resonate (higher or lower) frequencies than a man's?
  9. True or False: Each vowel is characterized by a different pattern of formants.
  10. True or False: shaping of the vocal tract in order to generate particular formants is essentially dependent on vocal fold vibration.
    False-it is independent of vocal fold vibration
  11. It is the rate of vocal fold vibration that gives rise to the __ of the sound.
    F0 or fundamental frequency
  12. The faster you vibrate your vocal folds the (higher or lower) the F0 is.
  13. (vowels or consonants) are classified chiefly by the relationship among the first three formants?
  14. Name the 3 changes in the vocal tract that our articulators can manipulate to change formant frequencies.
    • 1. overall length of the vocal tract
    • 2. the location of a constriction
    • 3. the degree of constriction
  15. Constrictions in the vocal tract can result in a (lowering or raising) or the F1.
  16. There is an inverse relationship between F1 frequency and tongue height.

    The higher the tongue position, the _____ the F1 frequency.
    The lower the tongue position, the ______ the F1 frequency.
    lower; higher
  17. A high tongue position (increases or decreases) the volume of the pharyngeal cavity and responds more strongly to (higher or lower) frequencies in the glottal sound wave.
    increases; lower
  18. A low tongue position (increases or decreases) the volume of the oral cavity in front of the tongue constriction and (increases or decreases) the pharyngeal space.
    increases; decreases
  19. High vowels = ______ F0
    Low vowels = ______ F0
    low; high
  20. F2 is related to the length of the _____ cavity, that is the space in front of the tongue constriction for the vowel.
  21. The longer the oral cavity is, the (lower or higher) the frequencies to which it will resonate most effectively.
  22. What is the name of the type of graph used to show formant information?
    F1/F2 Plot or vowel space
  23. __________ is a method of identifying frequency, amplitude, and duration of sounds.
  24. On a spectrogram, frequency is displayed on the (horizontal/vertical) axis and time is represented on the (horizontal/vertical) axis.
    • frequency = vertical
    • time = horizontal
  25. On a spectrogram, intensity of acoustic energy is represented by the ________ of the trace on the screen.
  26. What type of sound (vowel or consonant) is represented spectrographically by the first three formants?
  27. T/F Diphthongs are resonant periodic sounds characterized by their first three formants on a spectrogam.
  28. Shifts in frequency during a diphthong are called _________ ___________.
    formant transitions
  29. T/F Glides are sometimes called semivowels and belong to a class of sounds called sonorants.
  30. Sonorants are always (voiced/voiceless) and the airflow in this kind of sound is not completely smooth and laminar, but neither is it turbulent.
  31. T/F The liquids are also sonorant sounds.
  32. T/F The liquids are made with changing tongue motion.
  33. If a sound has an "r-coloringing" to it, we say that sound is _______.
  34. What is the major sound source for stops?
    A) vocal fold vibration
    B) pressurized air forcefully exiting the oral cavity
    B) pressurized air forcefully exiting the oral cavity
  35. On a spectrogram, the _______ ___ reflects the timing during which the articulators are forming the blockage and Poral is building up.

    B) silent gap
  36. On a spectrogram, the band of low-frequency energy that is sometimes seen in voiced stops is called the ________ ________.
    voice bar
  37. The feature on a spectrogram following the silent gap and is a burst of aperiodic sound is the _______ ______.

    A) release burst
  38. T/F Bursts are usually seen for stops in initial and medial position, but may not occur in final position.
    • T
    • final stops in English tend to be unreleased.
  39. T/F Bilabial stops tend to show a concentrated spectrum, with energy spread out over a narrow range of frequencies and more energy in the lower frequencies than in the higher.
    False-they tend to show a diffuse spectrum with energy spread out over a wide range of frequencies.
  40. T/F Alveolars have a diffuse spectrum while velars are compact with energy concentrated in a relatively narrow frequency region.
  41. T/F The bursts of voiceless stops are shorter in duration than those of voiced stops.
    false-they are longer in duration
  42. ____________ refers to noise generated by turbulence as air moves through the glottis during the time in which the vocal folds are starting to close for the following voiced sound.

    The turbulent air moving through the glottis delays vocal fold closure, resulting in a longer burst.
  43. _______ _______ _______ refers to the time between the release of the articulatory blockage to the beginning of vocal fold vibration for the following vowel.

    A) Voice onset time
  44. T/F   VOT measurements are commonly taken as an indication of the coordination between the laryngeal and articulatory systems.
  45. When the vocal folds are vibrating before the articulatory release takes place, it is called

    B) previocing VOT lead
  46. When the voice onset and articulatory release occur at the same time, it is called

    A) VOT of zero
  47. When the onset of vocal fold vibration follows shortly after the release burst, it is called

    A) short lag
  48. When vocal fold vibration is delayed for a relatively long time after the articulatory release, it is called

    A) long lag

    this is typical of voiceless stops!
  49. T/F Bilabials have the longest VOTs, alveolars have intermediate VOTs, and velars have the shortest VOTs.
    • F
    • Bilabials have the shortest and velars have the longest VOTs
  50. This class of sound is produced when pressurized air becomes turbulent, resulting in random variations in air pressure.
  51. The acoustic result of turbulent air flow is called _________ and it sounds like hissing.
  52. _______ ________ is aperiodic sound that has its energy distributed fairly evenly throughout the spectrum.
    white noise
  53. This class of sound is made by combining a stop with a fricative.
  54. This class of sounds is created by lowering the velum.
  55. The coupling of the oral and nasal cavities introduces antiresonances or ____________.
  56. An extra formant that is introduced when the oral and nasal cavities are coupled is called the _________ __________ or nasal murmur.
    nasal formant
  57. Bands of frequencies in which the acoustic energy has been damped are called ___________.
  58. T/F An antiformant attenuates frequencies within its bandwidth and amplifies those outside its bandwidth.
  59. T/F Nasals have both formants and antiformants in their spectrum making them acoustically very complex sounds.
  60. Which is more intense: nasal formants or antiformants?
    nasal formants
  61. T/F Nasal formants or nasal murmurs are caused by a blockage in the oral cavity and the lowering of the velum.
  62. As sounds are produced to form words, individual segments influence each other and modify the acoustic characteristics of the resulting sounds. This is known as ________________.
  63. During speech, changes in pitch, intensity, rate, and other factors are features known as ________________.
  64. When thinking about coarticulation, an upcoming sound can influence the preceding sound is known as _____________ ____________.
    backward coarticulation
  65. When thinking about coarticulation, when preceding sounds modify the following sounds, it is known as _________ _____________.
    anticipatory coarticulation
  66. List the 3 primary suprasegmental features of speech.
    intonation, duration, and stress
  67. __________ refers to the way in which speakers vary their F0 levels to signal linguistic aspects of speech, such as the type of utterance (statment, question, exclamation).
  68. T/F   F0 contour and pitch contour both refer to the variation in F0 levels.
  69. A theory as to why speakers drop their F0 at the ends of sentences is based on ________ __________.
    breath groups
  70. A ________ _________ refers to a phrase or sentence that is produced on one exhalation.
    breath group
  71. ______ involves varying the frequency, intensity, and duration of a syllable or word in a way that highlights a particular portion of the utterance.
  72. The term _________ _________ is used the the formant patterns of a vowel become neutralized.
    vowel reduction
  73. T/F Vowel reduction is rare in individuals with communication disorders due to deafness, neurological problems, and other causes.
    False-it is commong in that population
  74. __________ refers to the length of time of a speech sound.
Card Set
Chapter 8 speech science test
second half of Ch8 flashcards