1. to analyze structure, culture, and behavior of organization
    - 70% of OD practitioners use them
    Diagnostic models
  2. Types of Diagnostic Models (5 types)
    • -Differentiation-and-integration model/ analytic model 
    • -Sociotechnical systems
    • -Force-field analysis
    • -The Fishbone
    • -Cause maps & social network analysis
  3. Look at interdepartmental issues

    Example: issues between HR & Finance, or HR
    & Production
    Differentiation-and-Integration Model/Analytical Model
  4. Two interrelated systems in organization. The social & technical systems. 
    Example: employees work 36 X 36 X 48 hours;
    however, it must be recorded as

              40 X 40 X 40
    Sociotechnical systems
  5. Write the problem in the “head” 
    Brainstorm major causes of the problem and write them at the end of
    each fish “bone”
    Analyze each causes and write sub-causes on the “bones”
    Reach consensus on 1 or 2 major causes
    Explore ways to correct or remove the major causes
    The Fishbone
  6. mathematical representation of individual and group.
    Social Network analysis
  7. mathematical representations of
    relationships among variables.
    Cause maps
  8. Behavior balance between forces working in
    opposite directions
  9. act to keep organization stable
    Restraining forces
  10. act to change organization
    Driving forces
  11. when driving and restraining forces are equal
  12. What are the different levels for changes?
    • Changes on a Personal
    • Level:
    •  Patterns of behavior, relationships with others,
    • work procedures, and job skills.

    • Changes on an
    • Organizational Level:  
    • Policies, procedures, structures, manufacturing
    • processes, and work flows.
  13. 5 phases of the life cycle
    of resistance to change
    • Phase 1
    • Only few people who see need for change.
    • Resistance appears massive.
    • 1-5% advocates, 95-99% resistance

    • Phase 2 
    • Forces for and against change become
    • identifiable.
    • Change more thoroughly understood.   
    • Novelty of change tends to disappear.

    • Phase 3
    • Direct conflict and showdown between forces.
    • Life or death of change
    • Often change components underestimate strength of
    • opposition (resistance to change)

    • Phase 4
    • Remaining resistance seen as stubborn.
    • Possibility that resisters will mobilize support
    • to shift balance of power.

    • Phase 5 
    • Resisters to change are as few and as alienated
    • as advocates in the first phase
    • 95-99% advocates, 1-5% resistance
  14. Major Factors
    Affecting Success of Change
    • Advocates of Change   MOST IMPORTANT       
    • Person leading change program is often most
    • important force for change.

    • Degree of change (minor or major change)
    • The larger the degree of change, the more
    • difficult for success

    • Time Frame
    • Bigger time frame, the higher chance of success       
    • Greater chance of success if change is gradual
    • and in longer time frame.

    • Impact on culture        
    • The larger the impact
    • on culture, the lower the success

    • Evaluation on Culture     
    • Standards of performance developed to measure
    • change and impact on organization.
  15. The “Change Model” and the
    4 quadrants
    • Quadrant 1: Minor ∆, minor impact on culture.
    • Quadrant 2: Minor ∆, major impact on culture.   
    • Some resistance can be expected.

    • Quadrant 3: Major ∆, minor impact on culture.
    • Some resistance is likely.
    • Good management can probably overcome it.
    • Quadrant 4: Major ∆, major impact on culture.
  16. Driving forces toward the acceptance of change
    • 4 Driving Forces Include
    • (can be internal or external):
    • Dissatisfaction with present situation.

    External pressures toward change.

    •  Momentum
    • towards change-       
    • Number of advocates and how strong the push

    Motivation by Management
  17. Restraining Forces Blocking Implementation of
    Change (General and Change specific)
    • General Reasons for
    • Resistance:
    •  Disruption
    • of routine (inertia)
    • Disturb existing social networks.
    • Conformity to norms and culture (peer pressure)


    • Change-Specific
    • Reasons for Resistance:
    •  Uncertainty or fear of unknown regarding
    • change (misunderstanding)
    •  Self-interest
    • (loss of benefit, threat of security, and threat to position or power) *biggest reason for resistance*
    • Redistribution of power
  18. Different intensity levels
    of restrainers
    • -Foot changers
    • -Uninterested people
    • -Passive resistors
    • -“Bad-mouthers”
    • -Overt-active opponents
    • -Covert – active opponents
  19. What are strategies for overcoming
    resistance to change
    • o   
    • Education and communication/create a
    • vision/creating a climate conducive to communications

    • o   
    • Participation & involvement of members

    • o   
    • Facilitation and support/use leadership (both
    • formal and informal)

    • o   
    • Negotiation & agreement

    • o   
    • Rewards system

    • o   
    • Explicit and implicit coercion/power strategy
  20. What are the 3 basic types
    of change strategies
    • 1.Structural         
    • 2.Technical      
    • 3.Behavioral
  21. Useful in
    planning, helps organization plan interventions.
    graphical view of changes.
    Begins by
    identifying behavioral, technological, and structural interventions to be
    used in OD program.
    Stream analysis
  22. What makes stream analysis good/useful?
    • -Keeps us on track
    • -shows triggers
    • -shows "holes"
    • -shows "were we've been" and "where we have to go"
  23. When choosing
    an OD intervention, what kinds of things should practitioners and clients
    • Potential results of technique.
    • §  Does it solve the
    • basic problem (intended)?
    • §  Unintended
    • consequences (good and bad)
    • Potential
    • implementation of technique including costs versus benefit.
    • §   Cost/benefit
    • §   Can it work in a practical application?
    • Potential
    • acceptance of technique
    • §  Has it been
    • adequately developed, tested, communicated?
  24. Changing Nature of Management
    • FROMManagers that oversee a process
    • TOManagers who are employee coaches
  25. OD practitioner skill for helping work groups become more effective.
    Process intervention
  26. Purpose of process
    interventions is to:
    -Help work groups understand the way they operate

    -Become more aware of the way group members work with one another
  27. goal of process intervention
    • Help workgroups develop their own problem-solving ability
    • The managerdoesn’t tell a team how to solve its problems, but helps teams toidentify problems and initiate their own solutions.
  28. desired outcomes of process intervention
    Team is more effective and independent ProcessInterventions include: Clarifying,summarizing, synthesizing, generalizing, probing, questioning, listening,reflective feelings, provides support, coaching, counseling, modeling,setting the agenda, feedback, structural suggestions
  29. What a group does
    group content
  30. how a group does what they do
    Group process
  31. 5 areas that group
    PIs usually focus on
    • 1. Communication.Analyzingcommunications process within group.Observinglength of time member talks, who talks to whom, and who interrupts whom.
    • 2. Member roles & functions in groups. Roles can begroup task, group building and maintenance, and individual
    • 3. Group problem-solving & decision-making.Helping group understand how it makes decisions. Group consensus is one all members share in making and will support.
    • 4. Group norms & growth.Assisting group in understanding its norms and how they affect decision making.Group will improve decision making as members grow.
    • 5. Leadership & authority.Groupunderstands impact of leadership and authority.Look at bothformal and informal leader
  32. is  giving employees power to
    make decisions about work (usually pushed to lower levels)

    Engaging employees so they develop sense of pride and

    Interventions aimed at enhancing development of individual members.
  33. Interventions include
    • -Helping organization members improve communications.
    • -Interpersonal skills.
    • -Managerial performance.
  34. Examples of
    OD programs that involve empowerment
    • TQM
    • Job enrichment
    • Learning organizations **Most Common**
    • Self-directed teams
    • PDM – participation in decision making
  35. Desired
    outcomes from empowerment
    Higher effort (only 46% of employees give best effort 90% of the time)Personally challenged (only 36% feel personally challenged)Commitment, pride, creativity
  36. Reasons
    empowerment programs fail
    • -Unappreciated and misused
    • -Managers don’t provide tools, information, resources
    • -Moves responsibility, not more rewards (no extra $ for moreresponsibility)
    • -Managers get rid of accountability 
    • -Employees want it, but are not trustworthy
  37. Sometimes called encounter groups, sensitivity training, and training groups.

    Involves using a group as laboratory for discoveringcause-and-effect relations in interpersonal communications.     

    Usually includes 10-12 participants who do not knowone another, and/or two experiment facilitators
    Laboratory learning
  38. Objectives of Lab
    • •         
    • Insights into managerial and personal style.

    • •         
    • Determine impact upon others.

    • •         
    • Awareness of group functioning.

    • •         
    • Analyzing and coping with change.
  39. technique for identifying interpersonal communication style.

    Model presents 2 dimensional, 4 cell figure based on interaction
    of self and others.
    Johari Model
  40. Johari Model 4 areas
    • Public area - behavior, thoughts, and feelings which are known both to the person and to others.
    • Blind area - aspects of the self not known to oneself but readilyapparent to others.
    • Closed area -  behaviorsand feelings known only to oneself but not to others 
    • Unknown area - aspects of self not known to oneself or others.
  41. 3 types of transactions among people:
    • Complementary.
    • Crossed.
    • Ulterior. - Involves two ego states simultaneously: The literal words of the transaction, which may mean one thing.And the underlying intent, which may mean something entirely different.
Card Set
W430 second exam