Plant Reproduction and Biotechnology

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  1. Pollination
    • The transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma
    • can be by wind, water, bee, moth, butterfly, cricket, beetle, wasp, ant, fly, bird, bat
  2. sexual reproduction results in offspring that are
    genetically different from their parents
  3. asexual reproduction results in offspring that are
    clones of genetically identical organisms
  4. Fragmentation
    separation of a parent plant into parts that develop into whole plants, is a very common type of asexual reproduction
  5. Apomixis
    is the asexual production of seeds from a diploid or haploid cell
  6. multiple forms of apomixis (4)
    • •Nonrecurrent apomixis occurs when the haploid gametophyte gives rise to a haploid individual
    • •Recurrent apomixis occurs when meiosis is not completed
    • •Adventive embryony occurs when the embryo arises from the integument or other sporophyte cells
    • •Vegetative apomixis occurs when the flower is replaced by a bulbil
  7. saharan cypress lives how long?
    what is pollen apomixis?
    • 2000 years or more
    • –The male pollen grains give rise to seeds without any female interaction
  8. asexual reproduction is also called
    • vegetative reproduction
    • •Asexual reproduction can be beneficial to a successful plant in a stable environment
    • •However, a clone of plants is vulnerable to local extinction if there is an environmental change
  9. many kinds of plants are asexually reproduced from plant fragments called?
  10. Callus
    a mass of dividing undifferentiated cells that forms where a stem is cut and produces adventitious roots
  11. grafting
    a twig or bud can be grafted onto a plant of a closely related species or variety
  12. the stock provides?
    the root system
  13. scion
    is grafted onto the stock
  14. transgenic plants
    genetically modified to express a gene from another organism
  15. plant biotechnology meanings
    • –In a general sense, it refers to innovations in the use of plants to make useful products
    • –In a specific sense, it refers to use of GM organisms in agriculture and industry
  16. GMO
    Organisms that contain the genes from unrelated species
  17. Transgenic crops have been developed that
    • –Produce proteins to defend them against insect pests
    • –Tolerate herbicides
    • –Resist specific diseases
    • –Prevent farmers from storing seeds
  18. •“Golden Rice”
    a transgenic variety being developed to address vitamin A deficiencies among the world’s poor
  19. Bacillus thuringiensis
    • –Bacteria that contain proteins that kill insects
    • –Bacteria can be used as a pesticide or larvacide
    • •Endospores
    • •Crystalline form of endotoxins
  20. benefits/ costs for biotechnology
    • •Toxin is specific to two insect orders
    • •Does not affect non-target species unlike sprayed form
    • •Safe for humans
    • •Dramatic reduction in pesticide usage
    • •Farmers beholden to corporate products
    • •Non-target species can be affected (relatives of pest species)
  21. Bio-alcohols
    • energy sources derived from living sources
    • •Ethanol
    • •Sugar Cane, Corn,Switchgrass
  22. biodiesel
    • •Recycled cooking oils
    • •Animal fats
    • •Plant based oils
  23. algal biofuels
    • •Algae used to produce
    • –Oil
    • –Gasoline (with refining)
    • –Alcohol
    • –Hydrogen
  24. biofuel benefits/costs
    • •Removes agricultural lands from food production
    • •Can use more fossil fuels to produce than is saved
    • •Can be more carbon neutral
    • •Can remove dependence on foreign sources of energy
    • •Can produce less pollutants
Card Set
Plant Reproduction and Biotechnology
Life 103
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