1. What are the 4 principle tissue types?
    • Muscle
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  2. What are the 4 bone classes and give an example of each.
    • Long - femur, humerus
    • Short - carpals
    • Flat - sternum, ribs
    • Irregular - vertabrae
  3. What are the 2 principle types of connective tissue?
    • Cancellous
    • Compact
  4. Describe structure and function of compact bone.
    • Dense bone
    • Function as levers
  5. Overview the structure and function of cancellous bone.
    • Constructed of traberculae
    • Function - weight bearing and shock absorbtion
  6. Describe the structure function of inorganic component in bone matrix.
    • Hydroxyapatite (mineral salts)
    • Resists compression
    • Adds hardness
  7. Describe the structure and function of organic component in bone matrix.
    • Collagen¬†
    • Ground substance (proteoglycans)
    • Resists tension (adds "spring" to bones)
  8. List the 3 principle cell types in bone
    • Osteoblasts
    • Osteoclasts
    • Osteocytes
  9. Overview osteoblasts.
    • Perform endochondral ossification
    • The bone builders
  10. Overview osteoclasts.
    • Involved in remodelling
    • Breakdown bone matrix
  11. Overview osteocytes
    • Found in lacunae
    • Mature osteoblasts (about 20%)
    • Cytoplasmic processes link to other osteoclasts in bone matrix
  12. Describe an osteon and it's parts
    • Functional unit of compact bone responsible for maintenance
    • Consists of blood vessel in central canal surrounded by concentric bone layers called lamallae
    • Blood vessels feed osteocytes in lacunae via their cytoplasmic processes running through canaliculi.
  13. Name two sites of bone growth
    • Diaphysis - primary centre
    • Epiphysis - secondary centre
  14. Describe how bones grow in length.
    • Bone grows for the diaphysis against the growth plate, an area of inactive cartilage between the diaphysis and epiphyses. This allows bone to grow in length at end of diaphysis without reaching the epiphyses and joining it.
    • Joining of the epiphyses and diaphysis only occurs when bone has reached it's full size
  15. Describe how bones grow in width.
    • Osteoblasts in the sub-periosteal layer ossify bone, building outwards.
    • Osteoclasts remodel the bone on the inside, maintaining bone thickness and the medullary cavity.
  16. Describe how the structure of cancellous bone relates to its function.
    Cancellous bone consists of highly ordered traberculae which are arranged to best cope with stresses on the bone through weight and activity
  17. List the 5 functions of the skeletal system.
    • Support
    • Movement
    • Protection
    • Storage
    • RBC formation
  18. How many bones comprise the axial skeleton?
  19. How many bones in the appendicular skeleton?
  20. What are the functions of the appendicular skeleton?
    • Allows locomotion
    • Protects organs involved in locomotion, excretion, reproduction and digestion
  21. What are the functions of the axial skeleton?
    • Protection of organs (ribcage, skull)¬†
    • Maintains upright posture, transmit weight down to lower extremities
  22. What 3 bone groups comprise the skull?
    • Cranial
    • Facial
    • Mandible
  23. What are the divisions of the vertebral column and how many bones in each?
    • Cervical (7)
    • Thoracic (12)
    • Lumbar (5)

    Sacrum and coccyx
  24. What are the divisions of the hand and how many bones in each?
    • Carpals (8)
    • Metacarpals (5)
    • Phalanges (3 per finger, 2 for thumb)
  25. What are the divisions of the foot and how many bones in each?
    • Tarsals (7)
    • Metatarsals (5)
    • Phalanges (3 for small toes, 2 for big)
  26. Describe a "greenstick" fracture.
    Not broken completely through the bone
  27. Describe a closed/simple fracture
    Clean break, 2 parts in alignment
  28. Describe a open/compound fracture.
    Out of alignment, skin may be broken.
  29. Outline the 4 stages of fracture healing.
    • 1 - Damaged capillaries cause haemotoma
    • Phagocytes clean up area
    • 2 - Fibroblasts and chondroblasts form procallus
    • 3 - Osteoblasts start forming bony callus
    • 4 - Remodelling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts
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