SUR 105 - Test 4

  1. blood test that determines CO2 and O2 saturation, pH, and other important parameters of respiration and O2 perfusion
    arterial blood gases (ABGs)
  2. areas of overdistention in the lung tissue
  3. system of removing air from thoracic cavity and restoring negative pressure so the lungs can expand properly after thoracic surgery or trauma to chest wall
    closed chest drainage
  4. molecular passage of O2 across alveoli and into bloodstream
  5. difficulty breathing
  6. pus-filled area of the lung
  7. act of breathing out (exhalation)
  8. bloody sputum or bleeding arising from respiratory tract
  9. presence of blood in thoracic cavity or between pleural sac and lungs, usually caused by trauma
  10. lower than normal O2 perfusion
  11. act of taking a breath (inhalation)
  12. distribution of O2 to tissues
  13. prototype of single-use, closed chest drainage systems, introduced in 1967
  14. inflammation of the pleural membrane, usually caused by infection or tumor
  15. air in the chest cavity, which prevents lungs from expanding and may displace mediastinal structures
  16. tests performed to measure function and strength of pulmonary system
    pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
  17. minimally invasive surgery of thoracic cavity
    • thoracoscopy
    • video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)
  18. open chest surgery in which thoracic cavity is entered - incision into chest wall
  19. voluntary closure of epiglottis and contraction of intraabdominal muscles, which results in increased thoracic pressure - used during breath holding and bearing down
    Valsalva maneuver
  20. process of inflating and deflating lungs during breathing
  21. tissue biopsy is performed through what type of scope?
    flexible or rigid bronchoscope
  22. thoracic cavity is under positive or negative pressure?
    negative pressure
  23. incision, tear, or puncture of chest wall allowing atmospheric air to rush into thorax results in what?
    immediate collapse of the lungs
  24. sealed barrier between thoracic and abdominal cavities
  25. nerves responsible for the sense of smell
    olfactory nerves
  26. where are olfactory nerves located?
    superior nasal airway and septum
  27. 3 sections of pharynx
    • oropharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • laryngopharynx (larynx)
  28. 2 important structures located in nasopharynx
    • eustachian tube
    • pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
  29. where are palatine tonsils located?
  30. connects trachea with oropharynx
  31. upper folds of larynx
    vestibular folds
  32. lower folds of larynx
    vocal cords
  33. large "shield" of tissue that forms anterior wall and protects larynx from injury
    thyroid cartilage
  34. semirigid tube mainly composed of C-shaped rings
  35. only completely closed ring in trachea
    cricoid cartilage
  36. which bronchus is straighter than the other?
    right bronchus - inhaled foreign material more likely to enter right lung
  37. composed of smooth muscle lined with epithelium and no cartilage
  38. how are lungs separated in the thoracic cavity?
  39. double membrane that covers each lung
    pleural sac
  40. increase in pleural fluid
    pleural effusion
  41. what happens if chest wall and pleural space are opened (trauma or surgery)?
    air rushes in and collapses lungs
  42. what is breathing controlled by?
    autonomic nervous system, but also under voluntary control
  43. pressure between two pleural membranes
    negative pressure
  44. pressure in trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
    equal to atmospheric pressure outside the body
  45. what is needed to maintain negative pressure in pleural space?
    intact pleural membrane
  46. nerve that controls diaphragm
    phrenic nerve
  47. what controls phrenic nerve?
  48. amount of air exhaled during normal respiration
    tidal volume
  49. amount of air exhaled per minute
    minute volume
  50. total volume of air exhaled after maximum inspiration
    vital capacity
  51. volume of air remaining in the lungs after exhalation
    functional residual capacity
  52. total amount of air in the lungs when fully inflated
    total lung capacity
  53. amount of air expelled in first, second, and third seconds after exhalation
    forced vital capacity
  54. maximum amount of air expelled in forced expiration
    peak expiratory flow rate
  55. used for more definitive analysis of masses
    MRI and CT scans
  56. performed when CT scans are inconclusive for diagnosis of PE
    pulmonary angiography
  57. inadequate or incomplete expansion of the lung
  58. most common lung cancer
  59. loss of elasticity and distention of alveoli
  60. progressive, irreversible condition characterized by reduced inspiratory and expiratory function of lungs
  61. obstruction in pulmonary vascular system that may result in ischemia to that portion of the lung
    pulmonary embolism
  62. systemic disorder of hyperimmunity that results in multiple granulomas and fibrosis in various organ systems
  63. excess air in pleural space
    tension pneumothorax
  64. mycotic bacterial infection that affects lungs and other organs
  65. endoscopic examination of trachea and bronchi
  66. 2 types of bronchoscopy
    rigid and flexible
  67. endoscope capable of entering primary and peripheral bronchi - also used for cryosurgery and laser surgery
    flexible bronchoscope
  68. used for interventional procedures requiring large bore endoscope and rigid instruments such as removal of tissue mass or foreign body
    rigid bronchoscope
  69. what is used to take sputum or fluid samples during bronchoscopy?
    suction tubing with Lukens trap
  70. autonomic gag reflex causing patient to arch and cough even during heavy sedation or light general anesthesia
  71. patient position for rigid bronchoscopy
    supine with neck hyperextended
  72. patient position for flexible bronchoscopy
    semi-Fowler when inserting scope, then supine
  73. endoscopic examination of mediastinum through incision
  74. stainless steel endoscope inserted through small incision at suprasternal notch
    rigid mediastinoscope
  75. patient position of mediastinoscopy
    supine with neck hyperextended
  76. minimally invasive surgery of thoracic cavity
    video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS)
  77. patient position for VATS
    lateral with operative side up
  78. what does double-lumen ET tube do in VATS?
    collapses operative lung while providing anesthesia and oxygen to opposite lung
  79. thoracoscopy lens sizes
    10-mm lenses in sizes 0 degrees and 30 degrees
  80. small portion of lung tissue removed for pathological assessment
    thoracoscopic lung biopsy
  81. procedure in which portions of lung severely affected by emphysema are removed
    lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS)
  82. biopsy of palpable nodes in the area of the scalene fat pads
    scalene node biopsy
  83. patient position for scalene node biopsy
    supine with head turned away from surgical site
  84. open surgery of thoracic cavity
  85. procedure in which lobe of lung is removed
  86. patient position for lobectomy
  87. incision for lobectomy
    posterolateral incision
  88. removal of entire lung
  89. rare condition in which subclavian vessels and brachial plexus are compressed at apex of the thorax
    thoracic outlet syndrome
  90. opening of thoracic outlet is formed by?
    • first ribs
    • spine
    • sternum
  91. patient position for rib resection for TOS
    lateral with arm abducted up to 90 degrees and suspended
  92. surgical removal of a portion of parietal pleura
    decortication of the lung
  93. incision for bilateral lung transplant (recipient)
    bilateral anterior thoracotomy ("clam shell") incision
Card Set
SUR 105 - Test 4
thoracic/pulmonary surgery