Research in which information is obtained from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions about themselves or others.
A survey that covers a range of topics of interest to different social scientists.
Unique questions or other modifications in a survey adminstered to a randomly selected subsets of the total survey sample, so that more questions can be included in the entire survey or so that responses to different question versions can be compared.
A question or statement that contains two negatives, which can muddy the meaning of the question.
A single survey question that actually asks two questions but allows only one answer.
A survey question used to identify a subset of respondents who then are asked other questions.
The unique combination of questions created in a survey by filter questions and contingent questions.
A question that is asked of only a subset of survey respondents.
Survey respondents who see themselves as being neutral on an issue and choose a middle (neutral) response that is offered.
Survey respondents who provide an opinion on a topic in response to a close-ended question that does not include a "Don't know" option, but who will choose "Don't know" if it is available.
Close-ended survey questions that do not include "Don't know" as an explicit response choice.
Variation in responses to questions that is caused by individuals' reactions to particular words or ideaas in the question instead of by variation in the concept that the question is intended to measure.
The survey instrument containing the questions in a self-admintered survey.
The survey instrument containing the questions asked by the interviewer in an in-person or phone survey.
A technique for evaluating questions in which researchers ask people test questions and then probe with follow-up questions to learn how they understood the question and what their answers mean.
A method of evaluating survey questions and procedures by testing them out on a small sample of individuals like those to be included in the actual survey and then reviewing responses to the questions and reactions to the survey.
Observation in which the research categorizes, according to strict rules, the number of times certain behaviors occur.
Questions included in a questionnaire or interview schedule to help explain answers to other important questions.
Occur in a survey when one or more questions influence how subsequent questions are interpreted.
Part-whole Question Effects
These occur when responses to a general or summary question about a topic are influenced by responses to an earlier, more specific question about that topic.
A survey that is sent and answered by computer, either through e-mail or on the Web.
A survey involving a mailed questionnaire to be completed by the respondent.
The letter sent with a mailed questionnaire. It explains the survey's purpose and auspices and encourages the respondents to participate.
A survey that is completed by individual respondents whore are assembled in a group.
A survey in which interviewers question respondents over the phone and then record their answers.
Computer-assisted Telephone Interview (CATI)
A telephone interview in which questionnaire is programmed into a computer, along with relevant skip patterns, and only legal entries are allowed; incorporates the tasks of interviewing, data entry, and some data cleaning.
Interactive Voice Response (IVR)
A survey in which respondents receive automated calls and answer questions by pressing numbers on their touch-tone phones or speaking numbers that are interpreted by computerized voice recognition software.
A survey in which an interviewer questions respondents face-to-face and records their answers.
Computer-assisted Personal Interview (CAPI)
A personal interview in which the laptop computer is used to display interview questions and to process responses that the interverwer types in, as well as to check that these responses fall within allowed ranges.
A survey that is accessed and responded to on the WWW.
A survey that is sent and answered through e-mail.
A survey that is conducted by more than one method, allowing strengths of one survey design to compensate for the weaknesses of another maximizing the likelihood of securing data from different types of respondents; for example, nonrespondents in a mailed survey may be interviewed in person or over the phone.
Provided by research in which identifying information that could be used to link respondents to their responses is available only to designated research personnel for specific research needs.
Provided by research in which no identifying information is recorded that could be used to link respondents to their responses.