HDN is a syndrome of hemolytic anemia and jaundice occurring as a result of the destruction of what?
Antibody-coated RBCs in the infant.
(The antigens are coated by the mother's antibodies.)
Describe what takes place in maternal circulation and what in needs to happen iot cause HDN as pertains to Rh+.
-Mother is immunized, usually through previous pregnancy (including abortions and ectopic pregnancies) or blood transfusions.
-The mother develops IgG antibodies incompatible with fetal RBCs.
-Fetus must be positive for an antigen and the mother must be negative.
-The fetus in the first pregnancy with also have Rh+ antigens.
HDN can also be due to what other blood group system?
What is ABO HDN usually due to?
-Is ABO HDN serious?
-ABO HDN is usually due to IgG anti-A or anti-B in group-O women.
-ABO HDN is usually mild and no prophylactic treatment may be necessary.
What test is used to estimate the volume of fetal hemorrhage into maternal circulation?
How is test outcome determined?
Typically an acid elution (the separation of materials by washing) technique-Kleihauer-Betke test.
Hb F is resistant to acid elution (the separation of materials by washing,) adult Hb is not (On blood smear, fetal RBCs will appear bright pink while maternal RBCs will be almost translucent-maternal ghost cells.
What has virtually eliminated all cases of anti-D (Rh) HDN (at least in the developed world,) by destroying fetal RBCs before sensitization (formation of maternal anti-D) occurs?
The administration of Rhogam (anti-D) to pregnant Rh-negative women at 28 wks of gestation and again following birth.