Gas Transport by the Blood PPT Respiratory Midterm
Oxygen is carried in the blood in what two forms?
1. Dissolved in plasma
2. Combined with Hemoglobin
Which hemoglobin is considered normal adult hemoglobin?
Which hemoglobin makes up part of the hemoglobin of a newborn and is gradually replaced over the first year or two of life?
Hemoglobin F (fetal)
Which hemoglobin has reduced oxygen affinity and a causes a right shift of the oxygen dissociation curve?
Hemoglobin S (sickle)
-The deoxygenated for is poorly soluble and crystallizes within the red cell. The cell shape changes from biconcave to crescent or sickle shape with increased fragility and a tendency to thrombus formation.
What reversible reaction represents the relationship between oxygen, hemoglobin, and oxyhemoglobin?
When is the oxygen capacity reached?
When the maximum amount of oxygen is combined with hemoglobin (i.e. all sites are occupied)
Define: oxygen saturation
The percentage of the available hemoglobin binding sites that have oxygen attached
In general ______ mL oxygen combines with each gram of hemoglobin.
What is the formula for finding oxygen saturation?
Oxygen combined with Hgb X 100
What is the formula for oxygen saturation, and why should caution be used when consulting an oxygen saturation?
How many sites saturatedHow many sites total
-Careful because it doesn't take into account the number of hemoglobin. The patient could be anemic but still satting 100% if all sites are saturated
The change in Hgb from fully oxygenated to deoxygenated is accompanied by a conformational change.
What form is oxygenated, what form is deoxygenated?
Oxygenated form: R (relaxed state)
Deoxygenated form: T (tense state)
Does cyanosis depend on the amount of (1) bound hemoglobin or (2) reduced hemoglobin?
(2) REDUCED hemoglobin!
This is why cyanosis is often marked in patients with polycythemia (because there are more reduced hemoglobins!)
Patients with smoke inhalation may have great sats but may still not have great oxygen carrying capacities... why?
Carbon monoxide has 240x the affinity for hgb than oxygen, carbon monoxide will combine with hgb and therefore reduce the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
What are some causes of a Right shift in the oxygen dissociation curve?