1. Acute pain
    short in duration with an identifiable cause

    Trauma, injury or surgery
  2. Sympathetic Nervous Systems response to pain
    • Increased BP, HR
    • diaphoresis
    • nausea
    • vomit
    • pallor
    • anxiety
  3. Chronic pain
    pain that lasts after healing, usually longer than 3-6 months

    It has no purpose and can occur without visible injury
  4. Nuggets about people with chronic pain:
    • may not have a visible response to new pain
    • and may not have a SNS response to new pain either
  5. What happens if you dont treat acute pain?
    can turn to chronic pain which will be much more difficult to treat
  6. visceral pain
    severe pain that's crampy or gnawing
  7. referred pain
    pain that is perceived in another are away from the original pain stimulus
  8. somatic pain
    sharp pain from skin, muscles, bones and joints
  9. Neuropathic pain
    numbing, burning, shooting, stabbing pain.

    • phantom pain
    • diabetic neuropathy
  10. Rebound pain
    palpate and pain occurs when pressures released
  11. Equianalgesia
    helps to decrease addiction potential

    Swtich pt from parenteral medications to oral meds or vice versa
  12. Dependency
    a natural phenomenon that occurs with regular use of medication.

    ie-taking narcotics for more than 30 days...does not mean addicted

    All addicts are dependent, but not all dependent patients are addicts
  13. 4 C's of addiction:
    • Continued use despite harm
    • impaired Control over the drug
    • Craving
    • Compulsive use

    They are driven to look for and find the drug that they require regardless of the effect on their life
  14. Pseudoaddiction
    development of drug seeking behaviors among pain patients due to inadequate pain management
  15. Gate control theory
    a pain stimulus of a certain intensity opens a neurological gate, allowing pain stimulus to proceed thru the nervous syustem to the brain to creat the sensation of pain
  16. PQRST assement of pain
    • Provoked-precipitated by
    • Quality-describe
    • Radiating or Region
    • Severity-scale
    • Time-how long does it last

    pain assessment is ongoing
  17. Endorphins and pain
    levels of endorphins drop in people with chronic pain and depressed people.

    endorphins are stronger than morphine
  18. Describe pain response in the elderly
    Elderly have a higher threshold to pain and a greater tolerance related to degenerative changes. 

    So they dont seek treatment for pain like younger people

    **Keep in mind pain meds are strong on elderly, so titrate!!
  19. NSAIDS
    • anti inflammatory
    • risk for GI Bleed
  20. Medication used for moderate to sever pain and oftenly used in combo with opioids
    Oxycontin-oxycodone with acetaminophen
  21. Synthetic opioid for moderate to severe pain

    this med is a mu agonist and is a serotonin reuptake INHIBITOR
  22. Tylenol 3 and 4

    Side effects
    for moderate to severe pain....

    has codeine in it so watch for:

    nausea, vomit and constipation
  23. Level III pain meds
    How do they work?
    • bind to mu receptor sites and
    • block neuromediators that stimulate nociceptors which are receptors present in the brain and spinal cord

  24. Examples of Level III pain meds
    • morphine
    • fentanyl
    • dilaudid
    • methadone
  25. What is the PCA antidote?
  26. Adjuvant medications

    When we use non pain meds like antidepressants, anticonvulsants or muscle relaxers to add pain relief
  27. Equianalgesia meds
    helps to decrease addition potential by switching medications
Card Set
Pain in my !@#$%^&*