Gov Exam 1

  1. Customers and Border Protection
    keep bad people out and let legal ones back in; regulate who and what comes through the borders
  2. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
    find the illegals and deport them
  3. US Citizenship and Immigration Services
    Provide means for good people to get in through visa, green cards, etc.
  4. What are some key issues surrounding immigration policy in the US today?
    • Moral Issues
    • US was build on immigrants
    • undefined "reasons" to let people stay
    • Foreign Policies i.e. no communists
    • Over stayers, Size of border
  5. What's the question Tichenor is trying to answer?
    why is policy restrictive at some points in time and then expansive at other points
  6. What are the 4 interlocking processes?
    • Dynamism
    • Changing Coalitions
    • Professional Expertise
    • International Pressures
  7. Dynamism
    all these different entities push their beliefs while block other entity's agendas
  8. Changing Coalitions
    varying/fluctuating investment in different policies among various coalitions
  9. Professional Expertise
    relying on experts to define policy
  10. International Pressures
    refugees from war struck countries, richer countries citizens treated differently than pooer countries
  11. Structural Veto Points
    • any point in legistlative process that can halt or impede a bill/idea from going through either formally in informally 
    • President has the actual defined Veto
    • Heads of certain committees in Congress
    • Judicial Branch, declare something unconstitutional
  12. Opportunity Points
    • Any point in the legistlative process that encourages new ideas/bills
    • President
    • New Committee Heads
    • After an electoral year, sweeping changes in house and senate can provide opportunity
  13. Four Main Interest Groups
    • Cosmopolitans-expansive rights and admission
    • Nationalist Egalitarians-expand rights, restrict admission
    • Free Market Expansionist-restrict rights, expansive admission
    • Classic Exclusionists- restrictive rights and admission
  14. Path Dependence
    • early conditions and choices send public policy along a distinctive developmental pathway which it is difficult, though not impossible to depart in the future
    • the original founders had open immigration because plenty of land, need for labor and immigration rates were relatively low 
    • when rates increased, they were viewed as potential voting blocs
  15. Nativist Groups
    • American Protection Agency (APA)- sought support from the Republican Part, eventual liability due to path dependence 
    • Immigration Restriction League (IRL)- use scientific research
    • Know Nothings (American Party)-xenophobic basis for renewed national solidarity
  16. Order the events:
    Chinese Exclusion Act
     Creation of the IRL
    Rise of the Know-Nothings
    Founding of the American Protective Association
     Establishment of Ellis Island
    • 1 Rise of the Know Nothings
    • 2 Chinese Exclusion Act
    • 3 Founding of the APA 
    • 4 Establishing Ellis Island
    • 5 Creation of the IRL
  17. What are key reasons behind Democrats and Republics defending immigration in the 1800s?
    • D: early on set out to capture the immigration vote and did so by supporting immigration
    • R: neomercentalism-viewing immigrants as a pathway to further economic growth
    • Cosmopolitan motivation
    • electoral purposes
  18. Give examples of mechanisms at work in the 1800s
    • Professional Expertise: IRL and standing congresional committees on immigration who used professional expertise during the Progressive Era 
    • Dynamism of Governing Structures: new standing congressional committees that allowed access to lobbyist like the IRL; Democratic presidents as eto points, creation of commissioner of immigration and bureau of immigration to communicate with Europe
    • Shifting Political Coalitions: lack of left right coalition for restrictionist; shift of coalition of business and labor when it came to oppose E and S Europeans (oppose Chinese)
    • International Pressures: US imperial success supported pro immigration, Democratic Presidents as veto points to restrictionists
  19. Difference between quota and preference policies?
    Quota policies put a cap on the number of people that can come in (leads to racism and discriminiation); preference policies however divind possible immigrants into categories such as their relation to current US citizens- allow them in based on the categories instead of where they are from
  20. Order these events
    Chinese Exclusion Act
    Dillingham Commission Report
    National Qutoa Act
    Gentleman's Agreement
    Red Scare
    • 1 Chinese Exclusion 1882
    • 2 Gentleman's agreement 1907
    • 3 Dillingham Commission Report 1907-10
    • 4 Red Scare 1950s
    • 5 National Quota Act
  21. Why weren't Mexican immigrants targeted like other immigrants in the early to mid 1900s
    were seen are temporary workers
  22. What are key differences between Chinese, Mexican and Japanese governments with regard to US Immigration policy towards their citizens
    • Chinese- the burlingame treaty, lack of strong government
    • Mexican- guest worker program, Bracero Program demanding the US to treat Mexicans well
    • Japanese- Stronger Government, Gentlemen's agreement a little more effective government
  23. Give and example of Tichenor's mechanisms at work in the introduction of quotas on immigration
    • Dynamism of Govrning Structures- increase in President's power (post WWII)
    • Professionals Expertise: Dillingham Commision, Truman Commission 
    • Shifting Political Coalitions- sihfts in labor forces AFL and CIO joining, democratic party, committee barons 
    • International Pressures: WWII US feels that they should portray what they were fighting for
  24. Iron Triangle
    • an institutional veto point (specifically Eastland)
    • Consist of Eastland (Senator) INS and Southwestern growers
    • significance want cheap affordable labor-bracero program
  25. How was the Hesburgh Commission (SCRIP) different from the Dillingham Commission?
    • SCRIP-want to avoid discrimination, pro-immigration, more extertise, progressive approach
    • Dillingham- against immigration, racial discrimination, set path for quota system
  26. Reasons that meaningful employer sanctions have been so hard to achieve politically
    • Division of the Democratic Party
    • Hesistations in Republican Party 
    • Iron Triangle
    • Cost of Santions are concentrated benefits of sanctions are diffuse 
    • Businesses hav more moeny, are better organized and are consistently opposed
    • It is difficult and expensive to enfore, and its placement within the bureaucracy has been unclear
  27. Expansionist Policy Examples
    • Hart Celler Act
    • IRCA
  28. What render comprehensive immigration reform so difficult today?
    • Internal divisions within parties means theres no natural coalition pushing legislation forward
    • Economic conditions drive immigration policy outcomes
    • increased partisanship has made passing anything more difficult
    • the length of the US policy making process brings too many voices into play
    • businesses are too invested in the status quo 
    • too many institutional veto points to overcome 
    • any meaningful reform is too expensive and complicated
  29. What was Immigration Restriction League and what kind of impact did it have on policy
    • They were a restrictionist group that employed research and
    • professional expertise to support their ideas. They tried to implement literary
    • tests, house speaker Cannon didn’t let that pass.
  30. How did immigration policy become federalized?
    • Immigration act of 1882 first allowed states to enforce
    • federal immigration law. Then, Immigration act of 1891 created a new federal
    • bureaucracy within the Treasury department to assume the tasks of screening
    • immigrants. It relieved state agencies duties of screening. Ellis Island was
    • the main port of entry.
  31. How did federalizing the regulation of immigration impact policy
    • It was the start of a period of restrictionist immigration
    • policy. Rise of scientific government against southern/eastern Europeans,
    • racial hierarchy. Rise of interest groups and their direct influence on the
    • government.
  32. What is nativism and how did it manifest itself during the 1800s
    • Nativism referred to an ideal that favored the inhabitants
    • of a country instead of newcomers. It manifested in the American Protective
    • Association (APA) and the Immigration Restriction League (IRL). The IRL used
    • social science research (Henry Cabot Lodge) aka professional expertise.
  33. Who were the know nothings? What was their position on immigration
    • fact in the 1850s 
    • characterized by political xenophobia, anti cahtolic sentiment and occasional bouts of violence against the groups the nativists targeted
    • rose popularity before the civil war in the order to let off steam 
    • no immigration policy
  34. Why were there little changes in policy mid 1800s?
    • Veto points within Republican Party as well as the president 
    • Congressional committees preventing too much change
  35. What was the coalition that pushed for Chinese Exclusion
    • Workingman's party
    • They were mad Chinese immigrants would work for lower wages and conditions (gold rush)
    • Democrats- expressed hostility towards Chinese immigration,just hated them all, tried to exclude them from constitutional rights
    • California Republicans- majority of republicans were against exclusion
  36. Why were resrictionists successful with Chinese exclusion as compared to European immigration
    • labor unions were strong
    • S Democrats were racists so they helped pass it 
    • Chinese Exclusion  league had strong grass roots movement 
    • Politicians didn't care about Chinese vote
    • Pro Chinese groups were small
  37. What role did the Chinese government play in policy developments
    • China and the US passed Burlingame Treaty in 1868 
    • established stronger commercial ties and assured the rights of Chinese in states but China wouldn't enforce it, largely neglected as exlusionists movement in California got stronger
  38. How did pro immigrant groups respond to the Burlingame Treaty?
    • not successful in prevent the various barrers
    • very small victory
  39. Why was the Dillingham commission an important step toward immigration restriction?
    • Embraced by the IRl, was a study done to exclude certain races, using social engineering and research (professional expertise) researched what specific races contributed to society
    • proposed literacy test
  40. What institutional changes in Congress led to an opening for restrictions in 1910s?
    • Decline in power of parties (particularly of House Speaker Cannon who vetoed many restrictionists legislation) partly due to resistance to literacy test
    • opening for experts in congress
  41. What were some of the key factors leading up to national quotas for immigration ?
    • IRL gains support in Congress
    • Dillingham Commission is published
    • WWI and Red Scare islationism and Amreicanism 
    • Democrats become supportive of restrictive measures
    • Labor Unions also support restriction 
    • Business Support quotas to limit immigration
  42. What impact did progressivism have on immigration policy?
    • focused on the improvement of the national welfare through racial cleansing and purity 
    • interested groups like IRL gained power and were able to directly influence immigration policy
    • rise of scientific research against S and E Europeans
  43. What were the changes that led to the 1965 Immigration Act
    • Anticommunism and Cold World Ideals-wanted to show the world that democracy was better, so we wanted to let refugees in 
    • Civil Rights and Great Society Movement- tied immigration rights to civil rights
  44. How did the end of national origins quota change the immigration glows into the US after 1965
    • increased immigration flow
    • preference structure put in place
  45. What role did foreign policy play in the president's actions on refugees?
    foreign policy only allowed a certain amount of refugees so the president used his parole powers to let more in
  46. How did the Refugee act of 1980 change US policy towards refugees and asylum seekers?
    • has specific steps on what to do, procedures and rules
    • designed to face up the realities of modern refugee situations: emergency procedures, etc
  47. What categories was immigration policy broken into during the 1970s? how did this help to keep policy expansive?
    • legal immigrants, refugees, asylum seekers,illegals
    • you can block illegals but others are still allowed, policy is still expansive 
    • definition of refugee became broader
  48. Describe some of the problems related to agreeing and enforcing employer sanction
    • businesses don't want esp southern growers
    • Lack of consensus 
    • Cost of sanctions are cocentrated to business, but benefits are diffuse
    • Unions didn't want employer sanctions because there were a lot of illegal immgirants in the unions
  49. Why were some ethnic grousp for or against employer sanctions?
    • Blacks were for employer sanctions because they were here first and wanted the illegals out
    • Mexicans were against employer sanctions becasue the were mostly illegal
  50. How were the new restrictionists different from the old?
    New restrictionists avoided emphasis on racism and focused more on population growth and environmental degradation
  51. What is the difference between FAIR and National Immigration Forum
    • FAIR is restrictionists
    • National Immigration Forum is expansionist
  52. How was the Select Committee on Immigration and Refugee Policy different from the dillingham commission?
    • Both used profession expertise
    • SCRIP-pro immigration, pro human rights, re emphasized family reunification, skilled workers and refugees
    • Dillingham- anti immigration
  53. Why was Plyer v. Doe important development in immigration law
    • showed states can't do whatever they want in terms of illegals
    • Kids in school
  54. How did issues such as California Prop 187 impact immgirant electoral politics?
    politicians were afraid to commit to immigration decisions (don't want to lose their vote), yet restrictionist bills were being passes
  55. Homeland Security
    • BEfore 9/11 INS did customer service and enforement
    • Post 9/11 INS broken into OHS and eventually DHS
  56. INS
    Immigration and Naturalization Services
  57. Chinese Exclusion
    • 1888
    • 10 year ban on Chinese Immigrants that later got extended first exclusion of immigrants
  58. Immigration Act of 1891
    • Federal Immigration Bureaucracy
    • Created federal bureaucracy, pushed immigration control and naturlatization to the federal level
  59. Immigration Act of 1907
    created the Dillingham Commission- trying to go for the literacy test but couldn't get int, instead government created the Dillighm commission that passed a literacy test from the Immigration act of 1917 (cause and effect)
  60. Immigraction Act of 1917
    • Literacy Test
    • Bar Chinese and Japanses
  61. National Quoate law of 1921
    Limits based on 1910 census
  62. national Origins Act of 1924
    • limits based on the 1890 census, didn't want S and E Europe
    • want N and W Europe
  63. Immigration Act of 1940
    INS transferred from Labor to Justice as national security measure
  64. Bracero Program of 1943
    guestworkers mainly from Mexico
  65. Displaced Person Act 1948
    • After WWII admission of European refugees
    • Refugee relief act and refugee escapee act
    • more focused on European refugees post WWII
  66. Cuban Refuggee Act 1960
    • allow people from communist places to escape
    • most international relation issues to show the communists were bad
  67. Hart Celler Act 1965
    • dismantles quotas, startes preferences
    • move away from restrictive quota
  68. Indochina Refugee Act 1975
    Indochinese resettlement, vietnam war
  69. Refugee Act 1975
    • Adopts UN definitiono f Refugee
    • US more closely aligned with US after this giving better access to refugee status and resettlement
  70. IRCA 1986
    shift toward less restrictive policy and watered down sanctions no incentive
  71. Immigration Act of 1990
    Add employment based and diversity visa, allow lottery allowing countries with low quotas to come in
  72. IIRIRA 1996
    strengthens border enforcement and employer sanctions (go up employers and confront about hiring illegals, idea was to limit non citizen benefits for a certain number of  years (think prop 187) targeting illegals and those with green cards and such tp push for more people to seek citizenship
  73. Restrictive Organizations
    • IRL
    • FAIR
    • Know Nothings
    • Chinese Exclusion League
  74. Expansive Organizations
    • Immigration Protective LEague
    • American Jewish Committee
    • MALDEF- Mexican American Legal Defence 
    • National Immigration Forum
Card Set
Gov Exam 1
Exam 1