1. (bone structure) 2 things bone structure allow for?
    -provides strength to support the body

    -allows for flexibility
  2. (bone structure) what percentage of minerals provide the hardness of bone?
  3. (bone structure) What percent of oragnic structures provide bones for strength, durability, and lfiexibility?
  4. What is collagen?
    fibrous protein in bone tissue
  5. What are the two types of bone tissue?
    -cortical bone (compact bone)

    -trabecular bone (spongy bone)
  6. (2 types of bone tissue) Cortical bone (2)
    -compact bone

    -very dense tissue making up 80% of the skeleton
  7. (2 types of bone tissue) Trabecular bone (4)
    -spongy bone

    -scaffolding on the inside of bones

    -supports cortical bone

    -makes up 20% of the skeleton
  8. Image Upload 1
  9. What 3 processes do bones go through to develop?
    -bone growth

    -bone modeling

    -bone remodeling
  10. (processes for bone develop) Bone growth (3)
    -increase in bone size

    -completed by age 14 in girls

    -completed by age 17 in boys
  11. (processes for bone develop) Bone modeling (2)
    -shaping of bone

    -completed by early adulthood
  12. (processes for bone develop) Bone remodeling
    -reshaping of bone

    -continuous remodeling that continues throughout life span
  13. What two processes happen for bone remodeling?
    • -resorption
    • *breaking surface of bones

    -formation of new bone
  14. (processes for bone remodeling) What is resorption?
    • surface of bones is broken down
    • *by osteoclasts
  15. (processes for bone develop)(resorbtion) Osteoclasts
    cells that erode the surface of bones
  16. (processes for bone develop) How does formation of new bone occur? (2)
    • by cells called osteoblasts
    • *they produce the collagen-containing component of bone
  17. When is peak bone density reached?
    before age 30
  18. When does bone density start to decrease? and why?
    after age 40 because the resorption exceeds new bone formation
  19. Which mineral is tthe most abunsdant in the body?
  20. 4 functions of calcium
    -form and maintain bones and teeth

    -assists with acid-base balance

    -transmission of nerve impulses

    -assist in muslce contraction
  21. Sources of calcium (4)
    -skim milk

    -low fat cheese

    -green leafy veggies

    -nonfat yogurt
  22. what happens when taking in too much calcium
    -it is excreted out
  23. Calcium supplements may lead to..
    mineral imbalances
  24. 2 thigns that happen by not consuming calcium?
    • -hypoglycemia
    • *low-blood calcium

  25. 3 functions of phosphorus
    -important for mineral composition of bone

    -required for proper fluid balance

    -component of ATP, DNA, membranes
  26. SOurces of phosphorus (3)
    -high-protein containing foods (milk, meats, eggs)

    -processed ffoods as food additive

    -soft drinks as phosphoric acid
  27. Consuming too much phosphorus (3)
    -excessive vitamin d supps. can lead to high phosphorous levels

    -muscle spasms

  28. 2 fucntions of magnesium
    -mineral found in bone structure

    • -nerve and heart function
    • *muscle contraction
  29. Sources of magnesium (5)
    -green leafy veggies

    -whole grains



  30. What can magnesium supplements cause? (4)
    diarrhea, nausea, cramps, dehydration
  31. Consuming too little of magnesium
    • hypomagnesemia
    • *can result in low blood calcium and osteoporosis
  32. 2 fucntions of flouride
    -development and maintenance of teeth and bones

    -combines with calcium and phosphorus to protect teeth from bacteria
  33. 2 sources of flouride
    -flouridated dental products

    -flouridated water
  34. Consuming too much fouride
  35. What is flourosis? (3)
    -taking in too much flouride

    -creates porous tooth enamel

    -teeth become stained and pitted
  36. What if you dont consume enough flouride?
    dental caries
  37. How is OSteoporosis characterized? (4)
    -low bone mass

    -deterioration of bone tissue

    -fragile bones leading to bone fractures

    -shorteining and hunching of spine
  38. Age factor AND osteoporosis (3)
    -bone mass decreases with age

    -age related hormonal changes influence bone density

    -older adults are less able to absorb vitamin D
  39. Gender risk AND OSteoporosis (2)
    • -estrogen loss in post menopausal
    • *increases bone loss

    • -women make up 80% of americans with osteoporosis
    • *women have lower bone density
  40. Regular excersise AND OSteoporosis
    -it helps increased bone mass to rpevent osteoporosis
  41. How can the progression of osteoporosis be slowed? (3)
    adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D

    -regular exercise

    -anti-resorptive medications
  42. 4 minerals involved in energy metabolism



  43. What is iodine critical for?
    synthesis of thyroid hormones
  44. What do thyroid hormones regulate? (2)
    -body temperature 

    -resting metabolic rate
  45. Sources of iodine (4)
    -saltwater fish


    -iodized salt

    -dairy products
  46. Excess of iodine
    -blocks synthesis of thyroid hormones

    -thyroid tries to make more hormones

    • -can result in goiter
    • *enlarged thyroid
  47. Iodine deficiency
    -results in hypothyroidism and goiter

  48. (iodine deficiency) Cretinism
    mental retardation from iodine deficiency during embryonic development
  49. What does chromium do?
    -assists insulin as it transports glucose from the blood into the cells
  50. good sources of chromium
    mushrooms, prunes, dark chocolate, nuts, whole grains
  51. Chromium deficiency
    inhibits glucose absorption by body cells
  52. What does manganese do ? (2)
    -coenzyme involved in enrgy metabolism

    -part of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismultase
  53. Good sources of manganese
    whole grain foods, brown rice, pineapple, pine nuts, okra, spinach
  54. Toxicity of manganese
    impairs the nervous system causing spasms and tremors
  55. What is sulfur required for?
    detoxification of alcohol and drugs by the liver
  56. Amino acids AND sulfur
    sulfur can be found in few amino acids
  57. What is a component of thiamin and biotin?
  58. What is the only fluid tissue in the body?
  59. 2 functions of blood
    -transport of oxygen and nutrients to cells

    -removal of wastes from tissues
  60. 4 components of blood



  61. (components of blood) Erythrocytes
    -RBC for transporting oxygen through the body
  62. (components of blood) Leukocytes
    WBC of the immune system
  63. (components of blood) Platelets
    cell fragments that assist in blood clotting
  64. (components of blood) Plasma
    the fluid portion of the blood
  65. 3 functions of iron
    • -component of protein hemoglobin
    • *carries oxygen in erythrocytes

    -component of myoglobin which carries oxygen in muscle cells

    -coenzyme involved in energy metabolism of macros
  66. Sources of iron
    -meat, poultry, fish, clams, enriches cereal, breads
  67. What is heme iron?
    found in animal based foods and more absorbable
  68. What is non-heme iron?
    not easily absorbed
  69. Overconumption of iron (4)
    -toxicity symptoms

    - + risk of heart attack

    - liver and heart damage in hemochromatosis

  70. Iron deficiency
    most common deficiency in world
  71. what results in iron deficient anemia?
    iron deficiency results in small rbc that do not carry enough hemoglobin
  72. Functions of zinc
    development and function of immune system
  73. sources of zinc
    red meats, some seafood, whole grains, enriched grains and cereals
  74. can toxicity occur with zinc?

    intestinal pain, cramps, nausea, vomitting, loss of apetitie
  75. not consuming enough zinc

    -growth retardation, diarrhes, delayed sexual maturation
  76. functions of copper
    reuqired for iron transport
  77. sources of copper
    organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grain foods
  78. not consuming enough copper
    anemia, reduced WBC, osteoporosis in children
Card Set
minerals day 2