Lifespan Development Test 2

  1. EC growing body
    • loss of body fat
    • need far fewer calories
    • obesity is a bigger problem than malnutrition
    • gross motor skills developing quickly
  2. EC Markers of Physical Development
    • loss of baby fat
    • muscle growth
    • body proportions change
    • gain bone density and strength
    • sensory organ abilities refined
  3. Myelination
    • Myleins: coating that speeds up electrical impulses 
    • this increases and leads to faster thinking
  4. Lateralization
    • certain functions occur mostly in one side of the brain
    • corpus Callosum myelinates rapidly 
    • important to not change a right handed kid to be left handed
  5. Importance of Pre-Frontal cortex
    • enables brain to plan, select, and coordinate thoughts
    • helps kids to focus better
    • curves impulsiveness, better sleep
    • temper tantrum subside 
    • emotions become more differentiated
  6. Left Brain Functions
    • verbal competence
    • speaking
    • thinking
    • process information sequentially
  7. Right Brain Functions
    • non-verbal competence
    • spatial relations
    • music
    • emotional expressiveness 
    • process information globally
  8. Perseveration
    • the tendency to persevere in one thought or action
    • why kids can't stop crying
  9. Impulsiveness
    kids aren't good at switching tasks because their brains only know how to fire neurons on and off and have trouble finding balance
  10. Importance of Nutrition
    • overeating can lead to picky eating 
    • oral health is a problem in the US
    • more nutrients=better self esteem
  11. Just Right Phenomenon
    • Kids 1-6 (peak at 3) prefer
    • having things done in a particular way such as bedtime/clothing/etc. 
    • OCD tendencies tend to fade by middle school
  12. Benefits of Minor Illnesses
    • build immune system
    • average preschooler has 7-8 minor illnesses annually
  13. obesity in EC
    • tripled in the past 30 years
    • obese kids tend to become obese adults
  14. Impact of Major Illnesses EC
    • cancer (Leukemia) is most common major illness
    • family system is highly impacted
    • children can develop phobias as a result of major illnesses
  15. Rise of Chronic Illnesses EC
    • asthma is most common 
    • Impact of SES: low income live in poor housing which has more mold which causes asthma
    • little kids have a hard time fathoming chronic illnesses 
    • kids are more susceptible to mold at this age
  16. Emotional Illness EC
    • this is a reality at preschool age
    • caregivers usually want a "quick fix"
  17. Primary Level of Prevention
    • actions that change overall conditions to prevent unwanted circumstances 
    • there isn't a problem yet
  18. Secondary Level of Prevention
    actions that avert harm in high risk situations/populations
  19. Tertiary Level of Prevention
    changing things after a harmful event has happened
  20. Accidents and Injuries
    • leading cause of death for under 40
    • Low SES equals more accidents
  21. Myths of Child Abuse
    • it's rare
    • its confined to individuals with mental illnesses 
    • confined to low SES
    • Children who were abused become abusers
  22. Child Maltreatment
    intentional harm or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18
  23. Reported v. Substantiated Maltreatment
    • Reported are just reported but substantiated are investigated and verified
    • only 25% of reported are substantiated
  24. Child Neglect
    failure to meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs
  25. Warning Signs of Child Maltreatment/Neglect
    • injuries with no explanation
    • choke/bike marks
    • burns
    • pain with no reason
    • fear of adults
    • fear of going home
    • PTSD symptoms
    • fearing physical contact
    • unnecessary clothing
  26. Effects of maltreatment/neglect
    • developmental delays
    • difficulties in peer interactions
    • language delays
    • increased aggressive acts
  27. Characteristics of Abusive parents
    • unrealistic expectations
    • more threats and punishments
    • isolation
    • lack of coping skills
  28. mothers who were abused but not abusing
    • married to father
    • stable home
    • not poor
    • therapeutic intervention
  29. Permanency Planning
    finding long term, stable home care for abused children
  30. Theory of Mind
    • a person's theory about what others may be thinking
    • kids must understand that other people don't think their thoughts
    • occurs at age 4 with verbal fluency and maturation of prefrontal cortex
  31. Theory Theory
    children's attempts to explain everything they see by constructing theories
  32. Preoperational Stage
    • 2-6
    • operation means organized mental processes, logic, and reasoning
    • symbol thinking
    • mental reasoning
  33. Centration
    • focus on one aspect of stimulus and ignores all others
    • why children think taller people are older
  34. Conservation
    • realizing that quantity is unrelated to arrangement
    • short glass/tall glass experiment
  35. Focus on Appearance
    • a thing is whatever it appears to be
    • girls with short hair might fear they've turned into boys
  36. Irreversibility
    thinking things can never be undone or restored to the way they were prior to change
  37. Static Thinking
    • whatever is now has always been that way
    • there was no "in between" point A and B
  38. Egocentrism
    • its all about me
    • inability to take anothers perspective 
    • imaginary friends/talking to oneself
  39. Animism
    • the belief that natural objects are alive
    • talking to plants
  40. Vygotsky in EC
    • older people play role in cognitive development
    • ZPD: the level at which a child can almost complete a task by themselves
  41. Scaffolding
    temporary support given to increase a child's ZPD increasing their abilities
  42. Social Mediation
    human interaction that advances understanding
  43. Language development in EC
    • language explosion in 2-3 years
    • telegraphic speech: 2-3 word phrases
    • television does not aid language development
    • fast-mapping: speedy and imprecise ways kids say too much too fast
  44. Overgeneralization
    applying rules of grammar to everything and ignoring exceptions
  45. Balanced Bilingual
    knowing two languages and not favoring one
  46. Child-centered early education
    • Vygotskyian
    • stressing natural desire to learn through play and interaction
  47. Teacher Directed Programs
    stress on academic subjects, less expensive
  48. Intervention
    • Head Start; identifying at risk groups and funded by gov't
    • often difficult because it is not carried into elementary school
  49. Initiative v. Guilt
    children undertake new schools and if they cannot do that well then they feel like failures
  50. Self Concept in EC
    • appearance, personality, gender, size
    • identity and set of beliefs
    • kids think theyre great at this age bc they don't always remember failures
  51. Protective Optimism
    kids think they are way smarter and more capable than they are
  52. Externalizing Problems
    expressing emotional problems physically
  53. Play
    • productive/enjoyable
    • window into a child's world
    • types differ between age and culture
    • not good at sharing until 4-6
    • environment/access to toys/parent involvement
  54. Mildred Parten: Types of Play
    • solitary: playing alone and unaware of others
    • onlooker: watches kids play and asks questions but doesn't play themselves
    • parallel: playing at the same time as another and with the same things but not engaging
    • associative: sharing and mild interaction but not cooperating
    • cooperative: playing and sharing together
  55. Differences in play
    • boys are rougher girls like to pretend
    • birth order, family dynamic, gender roles
  56. Baumrind Parenting Styles
    • Authoritarian: my way or the highway
    • Authoritative: desire to involve children but still have clear boundaries
    • Permissive: don't require much from kids, allow whatever, can be high in nurture
    • Uninvolved: neglect
  57. Antipathy/Antisocial
    • actions that hurt others deliberately 
    • antisocial behaviors decrease by 2-3 and should end by 5
  58. Explanations for Aggression
    • Freud: id
    • evolutionary: fight to surive
    • social learning: we are aggressive because of aggressive examples 
    • we model people who are: confident, competent, same gender
  59. Types of Aggression
    • instrumental: hurtful behavior to get something someone else has
    • reactive: impulsive retaliation
    • relational: verbal attack on another
    • bullying: unprovoked, repeated attacks on victims unlikely to defend themselves
Card Set
Lifespan Development Test 2
Test 2 3/7/13 Early/Middle Childhood