Psychology Midterm 2 Final

  1. Behavior Genetics
    the study of differences and weight the effects and interplay of heredity and environment
  2. Genetic Master Code
    • DNA
    • Chromosomes-coiled chain of DNA
    • DNA is compromised of genes
  3. Identical Twins
    develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two creating two genetically identical organisms
  4. Fraternal Twins
    develop from separate fertilized eggs, they are genetically no closer that brother and sister but share the same environment
  5. Seperated Twins
    identical twins at birth in differing environments however were virtually alike via traits and habits
  6. Temperment and Heredity
    • Emotional Excitability
    • Sociability
    • Activity Level
  7. Types of Temperament
    • Difficult- irritable, intense, unpredictable 
    • Easy-cheerful, relaxed, predictable
    • Slow to warm up- resist or withdraw from new people and situations
  8. Evolutionary Psychology
    focus on what makes us so much alike as humans
  9. Male and Female Similarities and Differences
    • ideas in attractiveness
    • ides in perfect mate: fertile appearing women-smooth skin, youthful shape; mature dominant, bold and affluent
    • In sexual behavior-women are more relational men recreational
  10. What influences us and our behavior?
    • Prenatal
    • Early Experience
    • Peer Influence- children very sensitive and responsive to peer influences
    • Culture- behaviors, ideas, attitude, values and traditions shared by a group of people through generations
    • Gender-men are more aggressive behavior, leaders, women make more concerned with making connections, more responsive to feedback
  11. Developmental Psychologist
    examine how people are continually developing, physically, cognitively and socially from infancy to old age
  12. Focus of Development Psychologist
    • Nature v. Nurture: how does our genetic inheritance and experience influence our development?
    • Continuity v. Stages: is development gradual or proceed through different stages (escalator v. ladder)
    • Stability v. Change: do early personality traits persist through life or do we become different people as we age?
  13. Prenatal Development:
    • Zygote-fertilized Egg
    • Embryo- inner cells of a zygote where development beings to occur (first 6 weeks)
    • Fetus- 9 weeks after conception, looks human
  14. Teratogens
    harmful agents such as drugs/viruses
  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS
    • small dis-proportioned head and lifelong brain abnormalities
    • Depresses CNS activity, prime offspring to like alcohol, brain development
  16. root reflex
    head turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of mouth or cheek
  17. Stages of Development
    • Infancy
    • childhood
    • Adolescence
    • Adulthood
  18. Maturation
    • orderly sequence of biological growth process
    • i.e. standing before walking, nouns before adjectives
  19. Cognition
    • Piaget- all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,remembering and communicating 
    • 4 Stages:Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational
  20. Schema
    • concepts or mental molds in which we pour our experiences
    • i.e. gender schema
  21. Assimilation
    Interpreting experiences in terms of our current understandings (schema)
  22. Accommodation
    adjusting schemas to incorporate information provided by new experiences
  23. Sensorimotor
    • Stage 1 of Cognition Development
    • experiencing the world through sense and actions 
    • birth to 2 years
    • Object Permanence-the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived (gone around 8 months)
    • Stranger Anxiety- the fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning about the age of 8 months
  24. Preoperational
    • Stage 2 of cognitive development
    • represents things with words and images using intuitive rather than logical reasoning 
    • Ages 2 to 6/7 
    • Pretend Play
    • No idea of Conservation- the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape
    • Ego-centrism-have difficulty perceiving things from another's point of view
    • Theory of Mind- children's ability to infer other's mental states
  25. Concrete Operational
    • Stage 3 of Cognitive Development
    • thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
    • Age 6/7- 11
    • Conservation-understanding change in form
    • Ability to understand jokes
    • Mathematical transformations and reverse operations
  26. Formal Operational
    • 4 stage of cognitive development
    • abstract reasoning-imagined realities and symbols 
    • Age 12 to adulthood 
    • Potential for mature moral reasoning 
    • Complex thinking
  27. Psychosocial Development
    • founded by Erikson
    • All about finding identity 
    • Identity is influenced by Age, parents, society and peers
  28. Origins of Attachment
    • Body Contact-Harlow Monkey
    • Familiarity-Lorenz 
    • Responsive Parenting
  29. Critical Period
    • developed by Lorenz
    • an optimal period when certain events must take place in order to facilitate proper development
  30. Imprinting
    • rigid attachment process 
    • i.e. ducklings following whoever
  31. Responsive Parenting
    • Work of Ainsworth 
    • Authoritarian-parents impose rules and expect obedience
    • Permissive- parents submit to their children's desires, they make few demands and use little punishment
    • Authoritative-parents are both demanding and responsive, they exert control by setting rules and enforcing the rules but also explain the reasons for rules and especially with older children the encourage open discussion and exception to rules
    • *showed children with authoritarian parents had less social skill and self esteem; children with permissive parents were aggressive and immature
  32. Stages of Psychosocial Development
    • Trust v. Mistrust
    • Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt
    • Initiative v. Guilt
    • Competence v. Inferiority
    • Identity v. Role Confusion
    • Intimacy v. Isolation
    • Generativity v. Stagnation
    • Integrity v. Despair
  33. Adolescenes
    • term by Stanley Hall- described as tension between biological maturity and social dependence 
    • years spent morphing from child to adult (sexual achievement and independent adult status) 
    • Physical changes of sex characteristics
    • Cognitive Changes-frontal lobes develop, moral judgments build on cognitive development 
    • Social Changes- heredity and environment interact
  34. Primary Sex v. Secondary Sex Characteristics
    • Primary: reproductive organs and external genitalia 
    • Secondary: non reproductive traits i.e. breast/hips, facial hair/deep voice
  35. Moral Development
    • founded by Kohlberg
    • thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong
    • 3 stages: Preconventional, Conventional and Post Conventional
  36. Preconventional Morality
    • focused on self interest, obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete awards
    • Age before 9
  37. Conventional Morality
    • focuses on caring for others and on upholding laws and social rules, simply because they are laws and rules
    • Age- early adolescence
  38. Postconventional Morality
    abstract reasoning and formal operation thoughts, actions are judged right because they flow from people's right or from self defined ethical principles
  39. Crystallized Intelligence
    • our accumulated knowledge as reflect in vocab and analogy test
    • increases with age
    • philosophers
  40. Fluid Intelligence
    • our ability to reason speedily and abstractly as when solving novel logic problems 
    • decreases with age
  41. Learning
    a relatively permanent change in an organism's  behavior due to experience
  42. Associative Learning
    Learning that certain events occur together, the events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences
  43. Conditioning
    the process of learning associations
  44. Classical Conditioning
    a type of learning in which on learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
  45. Operant Conditioning
    we learn to associate a response and its consequence and this to repeat followed by good results and avoid acts followed by bad results (sea, ball and fish)
  46. Observational Learning
    • learning by observing others
    • learning without direct experience
    • can lead to modeling
  47. Modeling
    The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
  48. Pavlov
    • Russian scientist who studied digestion and explored classical conditioning 
    • Digestion Work led to Learning Work
    • Initial Response: Food= Salivation US=UR
    • Learned Reponse: Bell=Salivation CS=CR
  49. Conditioned v. Unconditioned
    Conditioned is always learned while unconditioned is always unlearned
  50. 5 processes of Condition
    • Acquisition
    • Extinction
    • Spontaneous Recovery 
    • Generalization
    • Discrimination
  51. Acquisition
    • Quail Study 
    • when one links a neutral stimulus and an US so the neutral stimulus begins triggering the CR
  52. Extinction
    the diminishing of a CR occurs in classical conditioning when a US does not follow a CS
  53. Spontaneous Recovery
    the reappearance after a pause in an extinguished condition response
  54. Generalization
    the tendency once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar reponses
  55. Discrimination
    the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and stimuli that don't signal a US
  56. Why is Conditioning Important?
    • Survival
    • Repoduction
    • Food
    • Avoid Dangers
    • Defeat Rivals
    • Locate Mates
  57. Criticisms of Pavlov and Conditioning
    • underestimated cognitive processes of animals
    • Underestimated biological constraints
  58. John Watson
    • decided to look at observable behavior through the little Albert experiment 
    • Loud noise= Fear US=UR
    • White Rat= Fear CS=CR
  59. Operant Conditioning
    • a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a punisher
    • i.e. Skinner Box
  60. Classical v. Operant Conditioning
    classical is associations between stimuli and respondent behavior (automatic response to a stimulus); Operant association of actions with consequences
  61. Law of Effect
    • By Thorndike
    • rewarded behavior is likely to recur
  62. Shaping
    • Made by Skinner
    • a procedure in which reinforces such as food gradually guide an animal's action toward a desired behavior
  63. Reinforcers
    in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
  64. Positive Reinforcer v. Negative Reinforcer
    • Positive- strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response
    • Negative- strengthens a response by reducing/removing something undesirable or unpleasant i.e. taking an aspirin for headaches
  65. Primary v. Secondary Reinforcer
    • Primary-unlearned i.e. getting food when hungry
    • Secondary- get their power through learned association with primary reinforcers i.e. light signal food so rat wants to turn it on
  66. Schedules of Reinforcment
    • Continuous Reinforcement- reinforcing the desired response every time it happens
    • Partial Reinforcement- responses that are sometimes reinforced and sometimes not 
    • Ratio Schedule- depends on the number of responses the organism submits since last reinforcement 
    • Interval Schedule-
  67. Partial Reinforcement
    • Fixed Ratio Schedule- reinforce behavior after a set number of responses
    • Variable Ratio Schedule- provide reinforcers after an unpredictable number of responses 
    • Fixed Interval Schedule- reinforce the first response after a fixed time period 
    • Variable Interval Schedule- reinforce the first response after varying time intervals
  68. Negative Reinforcement
    • withdraw from desirable stimulus 
    • i.e. time out from privileges, revoked drivers license
  69. How does Punishment effect behavior
    • decreases the frequency of preceding behavior
    • Problems: behavior is suppressed not forgotten, punishment teaches discrimination, punishment can teach fear, physical punishment may increase aggressiveness by modeling aggression as a way to cope
  70. Cognitive Map
    a mental representation of the layout of ones environment
  71. Latent Learning
    learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
  72. Biological Predispositions
    biological constrains predispose organisms to learn assoociations that are naturally adaptive
  73. Observational Learning
    • the ability to learn by observing and imitating others 
    • Modeling in Learning- process in which we learn all kinds of specific behaviors by imitating and observing 
    • i.e. Bobo Doll Study- compared with children not exposed to adult model, more likely to lash out
  74. Genes
    biochemical unit of heredity that make up chromosomes, a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
  75. Interaction
    the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
  76. Natural Selection
    the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increase reproduction and survival will most likely be passed onto succeeding generations
  77. Mutation
    random error in gene replication that leads to change
  78. Norm
    an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior, norms prescribe proper behavior
  79. personal space
    the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
  80. Individualism
    giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group idenitification
  81. Colectivism
    giving priority to gruop goals (often those of the extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
  82. Testosterone
    • both males and females have it, most important in male hormones
    • stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
  83. Role
    a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position out to behave
  84. Gender Identity v. Gender Role
    • Role- a set of expected behaviors for males and females 
    • Identity-our sense of being male or female
  85. Gender Typing
    the acquisition of traditional male or female role
  86. Menarche v. Menopause
    • Menarche- the first menstrual period 
    • Menopause- the time of natural cessation of menstruation, also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduced declines
  87. Social Identity
    the "we" aspect of our self concept; the part of our answer to Who am i? that come from our group memberships
  88. Emerging Adulthood
    for people in some modern cultures, the period from late teens to mid twenties bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
  89. Social Clock
    the socially preferred timing of certain life events lime marriage, parenthood and retirement
Card Set
Psychology Midterm 2 Final
PSY 301