integumentary peds

  1. macule
    • flat rash
    • ex: freckel
  2. vesicle
    • elevated fluid filled blister
    • ex: chicken pox
  3. ecchymosis
    black and blue marks
  4. papule
    • elevated area
    • ex: pimple
  5.  pustules
    • elevated, pus filled
    • ex: impenitgo, acne
  6. crust
  7. wheal
    • raised red irregular
    • ex: allergic reaction to a misquito bite
  8. strawberry nevus
    • dialted capillaries in the demal space and my not become apparent for a few weeks after birth.
    • usually disappears without treatment by age 5
  9. treatment for stawberry nevus
    • laxer treatment or excised of becomes ucerated
    • easily get infected
  10. things to chart with leasions
    • size
    • color
    • configuration
    • itching
    • location
    • is it localized or all over
    • raised or non raised
    • temp?
  11. port - wine nevus
    • present at birth and caused by dilated dermal capillaries
    • flat lesions
    • leasions darkens wiht age
    • usually around the ear, back of head
    • will darken with age
    • don't mistaken for a birthmark
  12. miliaria
    • prickley heat, a rash that is caused by excess body heat and moisture.
    • tiny pinhead sized redden papules with occ. clear vesicles
    • seen in the folds of the skin
  13. treatment for miliaria
    • removing of extra clothing, vathing skincare and frequent diaper changes
    • all baby have it will go away with time and age
  14. intertrigo
    dermatitis that occurs in the fold of the skin red, moist pathches located in the neck, inguinal, and gluteal folds.
  15. what triggers intertrigo
    • urine
    • feces
    • heat
    • moisture
    • often seen with cutting teeth
  16. treatment of intertigo
    • exposed area to air and light will help the healing process.
    • treat secondary infections
    • use antilfungal cream
    •    -not lamosil for under age of 13
    • oral nystatin
  17. seborrheic
    (cradle cap)
    • inflammation of the skin that involves the sebaceous glands.
    • sebaceous glands are clogged
    • thick, yellow, oily, adherent crustlike scales on the scalp and forehead
  18. treatment for seborrheic
    • daily shampooing of the head and apply oit to scalp.
    • soft brush to remove loose particles
  19. diaper dermatitis
    (diaper rash)
    red mois maculopapular rash with poorly defined borders resulting from amonis, heat and moisture
  20. treatment for diaper dermatitis
    • frequent diaper changes with exposure to air and light
    • physicians will prescribe ointment is the rash persists or candidia infection
  21. acne vulgaris
    inflammationof the sebaceous glands and hair follicles in the skin
  22. open comedones
  23. closed comedones
  24. treatment for acne vulgaris
    • tetracycline, Vit A, benwyl peroxide gels or lotions, retin - A, erythromycin, doxycyclin, or mincycline
    • accutane or ortho tri cyclen
  25. herpes simplex 1
    • cold sore
    • viral infection begins with tingling, itching, or burning on the lip followed by and eruption of vesicles`  
  26. triggers for herpes 1
    • stress
    • sun
    • menstruation
    • fever
    • illness
  27. treatment for herpes 1
    • typcial acyclovir
    • swish and swallow helps with pain
  28. infantile eczema
    • inflammation of genetically hypersensitive skin. erythematous papules and vesicles with weeping, oozing, and crust on the face and body.
    • child is sensitive to some type of allergen (food, dust, pollen, wool, soap, strong sunlight, insect bites, or vaccines)
  29. treatment for infantile eczema
    • to releived intching and inflammation, hydrating skin, and prevent infections
    • oatmeal, cornstarch, and baking soda, baths are helpful
    • dove and neutrogena soap
    • corticosteroids topically or systemic
    • antibiotics for infections
  30. staphloccocal infeciton
     skin infection occurs first then an abscess develops. If infection enters the bloodstream will develop septicemia with pneumonia, osteomylitis, or menigitis may result. primary site for invasion of bacteria is umbilicus of circusion
  31. treatment of staphloccocal infection
    antibiotics and isolation
  32. impentigo
    • caused by staph or strep
    • moist, thin-roofed vesical
    • vesicals rupture to a thick honey colored crust
  33. where does impetigo occur?
    • around mouth
    • nose
    • neck
    • axilla
    • and groin
  34. treatment for impentigo
    • systemic antibiotics
    • frequent handwashing
    • wash lesiond three to four times a day to remove crust with warm h2o
    • apply topical ointments as perscribed
  35. when can are child with impetigo return to daycare
    48 hours after abx treatment
  36. tenia capitis
    • ringworm of the scalp
    • often seen in school age kids
  37. s/s of tenia capitis
    patches of hair loss followed by papules then pustules which progress into scales
  38. DX of tinea capitus
    • history
    • appearance
    • wool's light test
  39. treatment for tinia capitis
    • antifungal suspension (can take up to 8 - 12 weeks)
    • avoid sun
    • do not share hats, combs, or other personal items
  40. tinia corporis
    ringworm of the skin
  41. s/s of tinia corporis
    • oval scaly inflamed ring with clear center
    • seen on face, neck, arms, and hands
  42. tx for tinia corporis
     antifungal ointment bid for 2 - 4 weeks
  43. tinia pedis
    • athletes foot (most common)
    • found between the toes ont the instep or soles
  44. tx for tinia pedis
    • topical anti fungal, may need oral antibiotics
    • clean and air dry foot prior to applying cream
  45. tinea cruis (jock itch) treatment
    tinactin or agtat liquid or powder
  46. pediculosis
    lice infecstation
  47. pediculosis capitis
    head lice
  48. pediculosis corporis
     body lice
  49. pediculosis pubis
    crabs or pubic lice
  50. treatment for all 3 pediculosis
    • aimed at ridding the parasite
    • treaterthe excoriated skin
    • prevent reinfestation
    • if shampoo/soap is used more than directed it can cause neurological problems
  51. pediculosis capitis
    • nits attach to the hair
    • hatch within 3 - 4 days
  52. tx for pediculosis capitis
    • RID or NIX shampoo
    • retreat 7 - 10 days
    • washe everything
  53. scabies
    parsite infection caused by sarcaptes scabiei, itch mite
  54. s/s of scabies
    • intense itching especially at night
    • vesiculopustular lesion
  55. tx of scabies
    • Elimite
    • treat all family members
  56. leading cause of accidental death in the home for children the age of 1 to 4
  57. 4 types of burns
    • thermal  - hot water or cofee
    • chemical - cleaner
    • electrical - can have cardiac arrest
    • radiation - due to x-ray or radioactive substance
  58. 1st degree burn
    • no break in the skin
    • red, hot to touch and painful
  59. tx for 1st degree burn
    • cold water to stop burning process
    • appy antimicrobial ointment (sylavadine)
  60. 2nd degree burn
    partial thickness
    • epidemis and most of dermis
    • moist, pink or red skin with blister ( do not pop that creates open line to infection)
  61. tx for partial thickness 2nd degree burn
    • coldwater
    • strerile dressing or clean cloth
    • seek medical attention
  62. 2nd degree burn
    deep dermal
    • deep in to demis
    • can develop infection, trauma, or poor blood supply.
    • red, tan, or dull white blisters seen
  63. tx for deep derma burn
    • cold water
    • cover with sterile dressing or cloth
    • call 911
  64. 3rd degree burn
    • full thickness
    • involves entire skin and all of its structures
    • dull, brown, black or pearly white that does not blanch or refill
  65. tx for 3rd degee burn at home
    • cold water
    • cover with clean sheet or sterile dressing
    • call 911
  66. ER care for the burn
    • stop burning process
    • evaluate injury
    • cover the burn
    • transport to the hospital
  67. care of the minor thermal burn
    • clean the wound with sterile water
    • aplly antimicrobial ointment with loose dressing
    • teache warning signs of infection
    • give Td and DTaP if needed
    • pain meds
  68. care of the major burn
    • establish airway (give o2)
    • endotracheal intubtion used when inadequate airway is present
    • inadequat chest movement may require escharotomy.
    • stat ABGs, CMP,CBC, and blood type and cross matching
  69. medication for major burn
    • IV morephine
    • demerol can cause seizures
    • IV fluids with LR
  70. s/s of inhaled flames
    • cyanosis
    • singed nose hairs
    • charred lips
    • stridor
  71. what is escharotomy
    put to sleep and slice the chest wall to open skin and help allow rise and fall of the chest
  72. tx for major burns
    • LR IV solutioin initiated
    • albumin or plasma will be given with in 24 - 48 hours
    • foley for hourly I and O
    • NG tube
    • Td or DTaP
    • IV antibiotics
  73. what type of technique used in cleaning the burn
    strict sterile technique
  74. when are temp skin grafts used
    acute stage of recoveryto prevent infeciton and reduce fluid loss
  75. homograft
    graft from disease free cadavier or donor
  76. xenograft or heterograft
    • tissue from disease free animal
    • usually a pig
  77. biological dressing
    •  come from the neonate foreskin
    • forskin combined with nylon mesh and they freeze it
    • can only be used if it has been less that 6 hours since burn occured
  78. nursing care for grafts
    • protective isolation
    • strict sterile technique
    • report any signs of infection immediatly
    • s/s of fluid overload
    • accurat I&O, daily wt, food consumed
    • ROM, turn q 2 hours,
    • emotional support for child and parents
  79. what vit do we give to promote healing and stimulate appetite?
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • zinc
  80. frost bite
    chilblain is cold injury with erythema, vesicles and lesions that occur as result if vasoconstriction
  81. s/s of frostbite
    • pale
    • hard without sensation
  82. tx for frostbite
    • warm moist O2
    • warming blanket
    • warm IV fluids
    • accurate I&O
    • frequent VS
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integumentary peds
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