basic def of Parkinson's Disease (PD)
idiopathic destruction of the substantia nigra
PD type syndromes for non-idiopathic causes
Parkinsons Plus syndromes
classic features fo PD w additional non-PD symptoms
are a group of neurodegenerative diseases featuring the classical features of Parkinson's disease (tremor, rigidity, akinesia/bradykinesia, postural instability) with additional features that distinguish them from simple idiopathic Parkinson's disease
4 examples of parkinsons plus syndromes
- progressive supranuclear palsy
- corticobasilar degeneration
- multiple system atrophy
- alzheimer's disease?
how to diagnose PD
- bradykinesia with atleast 2 of the following:
- limb muslce rigidity, resting tremor (abolished with movement), postural instability
in diagnosing PD, need to eliminate these secondary causes for PD symptoms
- postencephaplitic parkinson's (a disease believed to be caused by a viral illness, that triggers degeneration of the nerve cells in the substantia nigra)
- drug induced
- other neurodegenerative conditions (Wilson's, Alzheimer's, Lewy Body dementia)
the movement disorder PD affects _% of pop over 65 y/o, and it's the 2nd most common neurodegenerative disorder after__
PD is due to an imbalance of __ and __ hormones
dopamine and acetylcholine
in PD there's a loss of __% of __ porduction in the __
- substantia nigra
abnormal aggregates of protein that develop inside nerve cells in Parkinson's disease
most important risk factor for PD?
risk factors for PD
- fam history
- environmental exposure to herbicides and pesticides, metals, well water, farming, rural residence, wood pulp mills, steel alloy industries
- race (it's worse to be white)
- life experiences (trauma, stress -- shyness&depression?)
there's an inverse correlation btwn PD and what 2 habits?
smoking & coffee
methyl-phenyl tetrahydropyridine does what?
destroyes substantia nigra
what's the genetic predisposition for PD?
- mutations n the gene for the protein alpha-synuclein
- located on chromosome 4
4 theories on pathogenesis of PD
- oxidative damage --> impaired protection
- env toxins
- genetic predisposition
- advanced aging
major neuropathologic findings in PD?
- loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (60-80% are lost before motor signs of PD emerge)
- synuclein-filled Lewy bodies within pigmented neurons of substantia nigra
Lewy body pathology (appearing early in PD) begin where? this is associated with what? (ie, what are early signs of PD?)
- olfactory bulb and lower brain stem
- loss of sense of smell, and REM seep behavior disorder