Geography Final

  1. Break-of-bulk point
    • A location where transfer among transportation modes is possible.
    • For example: Workers must unload goods from a truck and then reload them into a plane.
  2. Bulk-Gaining Industry
    • A product that gains volume or weight during production.
    • For example: Soft-drink bottling.
  3. Bulk-Reducing Industry
    • An economic activity in which the final product weighs less than its inputs.
    • For example: Copper ore is worked until it is concentrated into something that is of value.
  4. Cottage Industry
    • Work that was taken and done at home. They are paid for whatever they produce.
    • For example: My mom used to take a sewing mechine home, and the company would pay her for whatever she produced at her house.
  5. Fordist
    A method of mass production, named after the first company to incorporate the technique; Ford. Companies would assign workers one specific task to do repeatedly.
  6. Industrial Revolution
    Originated in northern England and southern Scotland in the late eighteenth century. The revolution in industrial technology created an unprecedented expansion in productivity, resulting in substantially higher standards of living. A larger percentage of these mechanical devices where developed in the United Kingdom.
  7. Labor-Intensive Industry
    An industry in which wages and other compensations paid to employees constitute a high percentage of expenses.
  8. Maquiladora
    Under U.S. and Mexican laws, companies recieve tax breaks if they ship materials from the U.S., assemble components at a plant called a Maquiladora, and export the finished product back to the united states. In short: it's an assembly plant outside of the country that allows the rich to get richer.
  9. New International Division of Labor
    Given the substantial difference in wages between MDCs and LDCs, transnational corporations can profitably transfer some work to LDCs, despite greater transportation cost.
  10. Outsourcing
    Transnational corporations allocate production to low-wage countries.
  11. Post-Fordist
    Used to describe flexible production.
  12. Right-To-Work State
    Southern and Western United States. The right-to-work law requires a factory to maintain an "open shop," and prohibits a "closed shop." In an "open shop," a union and company may not negotiate a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment. In other words, Unions can go suck on an elephants balls.
  13. Site Factors
    Result from the unique characteristics of a location. Land, labor, and capital are the three traditional production factors that may vary among locations.
  14. Situation Factors
    Involve transporting material to and from a factory. A firm seeks a location that minimizes the cost of transporting inputs to the factory and finished goods to the consumers.
  15. Textile
    • Woven fabrics
    • Ex: Jeans
  16. Service
    • Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.
    • Ex: A whore gives a man a blowjob in exchange for cash.
  17. Settlement
    • A permanent collection of buildings where people reside, work and obtain services.
    • Ex: Brothel
  18. Consumer Services
    Provides services to individual consumers who desire them and can afford to pay for them.
  19. Business Services
    Facilitates other businesses. The three main types of businesses are professional, financial, and transportation.
  20. Public Services
    Provides security and protection for citizens and businesses.
  21. Clustered Rural Settlements
    A number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collectioni of houses and farm buildings.
  22. Dispersed Rural Settlements
    Characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in settlements.
  23. Enclosure Movement
    A movement that took place in great britain, between 1750 and 1850. To improve agricultural production, they converted their rural landscapes from clustered settlements to dispersed patterns.
  24. Central Place
    A market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
  25. Central Place Theory
    Explains how services are distributed and why a regular pattern of settlements exists.
  26. Market Area / Hinterland
    The area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted to.
  27. Range (of a service)
    The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
  28. Threshold (of a service)
    The minimum number of people needed to support the service.
  29. Gravity Model
    predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.
  30. Rank-Size Rule
    Ranking settlements, from largest to smallest population, produce a regular pattern or hierarchy.
  31. Primate City Rule
    The largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
  32. Primate City
    The country's largest city in a primate city rule.
  33. City-State
    Independent, self-governing communities that included the settlement and nearby countryside.
  34. Basic Industries
    A settlement's distinctive economic structure which exports primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
  35. Nonbasic Industries
    Enterprises whose customers live in the same community.
  36. Economic Base
    A community's unique collection of basic industries.
  37. Central Business District (CBD)
    services of all types clustered in the center of the city.
  38. Urbanization
    The process by which the population of cities grows.
  39. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
    • 1. An urbanized area with a population of at least 50,000
    • 2. The county within wich the city is located.
    • 3. Adjacent counties with a hig population density and a large percentage of residents working in the central city's county.
  40. Micropolitan Statistical Areas
    An urbanized area of 10 to 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
  41. Urbanized Area
    The central city and the surrounding built-up suburbs.
  42. Concentric Zone Model
    Developed by E. W. Burgess. According to this model, a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings, like the growth rings of a tree.
  43. Sector Model
    Developed by Homer Hoyt. According to this model, the city develops in a serious of sectors, not rings.
  44. Multiple Nuclei Model
    Developed by C. D. Harris and E.L. Ullman. According to this model, a city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve.
  45. Census Tracts
    Each section contains approx. 5,000 residents and correspond, where possible, to neighborhood boundries.
  46. Squatter Settlements
    Barrio's...poor settlements.
  47. Filtering
    Large shelters, built by wealthy landlords, are subdivided into smaller dwellings for poor people to rent out.
  48. Relining
    Lines that a bank draws on a map to identify areas in which they will refuse to loan money.
  49. Urban Renewal
    Cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, and build new roads and utilities.
  50. Public Housing
    Reserved for low-income households, who must pay 30 percent of their income for rent.
  51. Gentrification
    The process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing.
  52. Underclass
    Inner-city residents that are trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems.
  53. Annexation
    The process of legally adding land area to a city.
  54. Peripheral Model
    Developed by Chauncey Harris. According to this model, an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
  55. Edge Cities
    Around the beltway of the peripheral model, there are nodes of consumer and business services.
  56. Density Gradient
    The density change in an urban area.
  57. Sprawl
    The progressive spread of development over the landscape.
  58. Greenbelts
    Rings of open space.
  59. Zoning Ordinances
    Encouraged spatial separation and prevented the mixing of land uses within the same district.
  60. Rush Hour
    The peak hour that has four consecutive 15-minute periods that have the heaviest traffic.
  61. Animate Power
    Power supplied by either the people of the city or by animals.
  62. Inanimate Power
    Generated by machines.
  63. Biomass Fuel
    collected from wood, plant material, and animal waster.
  64. Fossil Fuel
    The residue of plants and animals that were buried millions of years ago.
  65. Proven Reserve
    The amount of energy remaining in deposits that have been discovered.
  66. Potential Reserve
    The energy in deposits that are undiscovered but thought to exist.
  67. OPEC
    Orginization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
  68. Ferrous
    Refers to iron and other alloys used in the production of iron and steel.
  69. Nonferrous
    Anything that isn't iron or an alloy.
  70. Hydroelectric Power
    The power of moving water is harnessed to generate power.
  71. Conservation
    The sustainable use and managment of natural resources.
  72. Preservation
    Maintenance of resources in their present condition, with as little human impact as possible.
  73. Sustainable Development
    The development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generationis to meet their own needs.
Card Set
Geography Final
Terms for the last four chapters of Cult. Geog.