MBA 502 Final Quiz

  1. Defined as the psychological forces within a person that determine direction, effort, persistence.
  2. A ____ is a requirement for survival.
  3. To motivate a person, what two things are needed:
    • 1. Managers must determine what needs worker wants satisfied.
    • 2. Ensure that a person receives the outcomes when performing well.
  4. List different needs theories for motivation.
    • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • Alderfer's ERG
    • McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory
  5. What are the 3 psychological forces of motivation?
    • direction: degree of focus
    • effort: how hard a person will try/work
    • persistence: when the individual continues a task even when it is no longer enjoyable or it becomes challenging or difficult
  6. What are the 5 needs of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory?
    • Physiological: wages
    • Safety: Safety policy; healthcare benefits, retirement, insurance
    • Social: Interaction w/ coworkers; social functions that bring coworkers together
    • Esteem: Recognition, promotions, pay raises
    • Self Actualization: Assigning task that challenge and stretch person, training, advanced education
  7. What 3 needs make up Alderfer's ERG Theory?
    • Existence: need for physical and psychological health and well being
    • Relatedness: same as belongingness
    • Growth: to have experiences that promote growth and confidence in one's abilities
  8. What concept did Alderfer introduce to describe how we deal with our unmet needs?
    Frustration regression
  9. What describes the situation where we find ourselves unable to satisfy a need and, in reaction to the unsatisfied need, we regress toward a lower need?
    frustration regression
  10. Who believed that basic needs are transmitted or learned through culture and that the need for achievement was a powerful motivator?
  11. What are the 3 dominant needs of McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory?
    • Need for Achievement: desire to accomplish something difficult, master complex tasks, and surpass others.
    • Need for Affiliation: desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflict, and establish warm friendships
    • Need for power: desire to influence or control others
  12. What makes up Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory?
    • hygiene factors: factors whose presence prevents dissatisfaction
    • motivators: factors whose presence leads to satisfaction
  13. What factors are intrinsic?
    motivational factors
  14. What factors are extrinsic?
    maintenance factors (hygiene)
  15. What are some factors of hygiene?
    • Working conditions
    • pay and security
    • company policies
    • supervisors
    • interpersonal relationships
  16. What are some factors of motivators?
    • Achievement
    • Recognition
    • Responsibility
    • Work itself
    • Personal growth
  17. What theory concerns the worker's perception of how she is being treated, and is based on the assessment process a worker uses to evaluate the fairness or justice of organizational outcomes and the adjustment process used to maintain perceptions of fairness?
    Equity Theory
  18. ________exist when worker's outcome/input ration is not equal to referent.
  19. Ratio is less than the referent. Worker feels they are not getting the outcomes they should given inputs.
    Underpayment inequity
  20. ratio is higher than the referent. Worker feels they are getting more outcomes then they should given inputs.
    Overpayment inequity
  21. Inequity creates tension in workers to restore equity.
    Restoring Equity
  22. What theory states that people who set goals outperform those who don't set goals?
    Goal-setting theory
  23. What does a well design goal result in?
    direction, effort, and persistence
  24. In order to be motivating goals should be:____
    • specific
    • difficult
    • within employee's ability
    • provide feedback on performance
  25. What theory describes the process people use to evaluate (1) the likelihood that their effort or expenditure will yield the desired outcome, and (2) how much they want the outcome?
    Expectancy theory
  26. Person's perception that effort will result in performance.
  27. Perception that performance results in outcomes.
  28. The desirability of outcomes from the job.
  29. What are the 3 factors of VIE theory?
    expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
  30. What is the permanent change resulting from experience?
  31. What theory is a learning theory that characterizes motivation as largely determined by external factors, that is, the consequence of behavior determining whether the behavior is repeated in the future?
    Reinforcement Theory aka Operant Conditioning Process
  32. What is the process of learning connection between desired behavior and a reward/punishment? distinct from classical conditioning
    Reinforcement theory
  33. What is the operant conditioning process procedure? (reinforcement theory)
    • antecedent: something that requires a response or action
    • voluntary behavior
    • outcome: reinforcement/ punishment
  34. What are the 3 reinforcements of Reinforcement Theory?
    • Punishment: discourage behavior
    • Negative Reinforcement: manager creates unpleasant situation until they do what they want them to do ex: nagging
    • Positive Reinforcement: something pleasant happens after desired behavior 
    • Extinction: removal of all reinforcers
  35. What is the ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organization goals?
  36. Who inspires employees w/ a vision and helps them to cope w/ change?
  37. Who directs the work of employees and is responsible for the results?
  38. What results from controlling access or owning a resource that is perceived as valuable?
  39. How is power determined?
    • 1. is this resource rare or unique
    • 2. is the resource abundant
  40. What are the different power bases: source of power?
    • 1. coercive
    • 2. reward
    • 3. legitimate
    • 4. expert
    • 5. referent
  41. Which power is the manager's ability to apply penalties when an employee fails to cooperate?
    coercive power
  42. Which power is compliance in exchange for something valuable?
    Reward power
  43. Which power results from job title?
    legitimate power
  44. Which power is based on an individual's technical or expert knowledge about a particular area that we do not have?
    Expert power
  45. Which power is the ability to have people like you? Stimulates imitation and loyalty; someone we admire
    referent power
  46. Which powers do leaders try to use first?
    referent, expert, and legitimate
  47. Which powers do managers try to use first?
    legitimate, coercive, reward
  48. What is the attempt to systematically describe effective leaders by focusing on individual traits, such as a physical or personality attribute?
    trait theory of leadership
  49. What characteristics do trait theory focus on?
    • intelligence
    • emotional maturity
    • intrinsic motivation
    • need for achievement
    • employee centered
  50. Which theory studies were inconsistent in their findings and in their value to management?
    trait theory
  51. Which theory focuses on behaviors that distinguish leaders from nonleaders?
    Behavioral Theories of Leadership
  52. Which behavioral style consists of behaviors such as setting goals, giving directions, supervising worker performance, and applauding good work?
    task oriented behavioral style
  53. Which behavior style is the focus on behaviors that promote good rapport of team, emphasizes individual needs, showing empathy for worker needs and feelings?
    People oriented / relationship oriented behavioral style
  54. Which grid incorporates both task orientation and people orientation into a two dimension matrix grid?
    leadership grid
  55. What are the 5 different managements of the leadership grid?
    • impoverished management
    • authority compliance management
    • country club management
    • team management
    • middle of the road management
  56. Leadership grid: Which management is Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership?
    impoverished management
  57. Leadership grid: Which management is efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree?
    Authority Compliance Management
  58. Leadership grid: Which management is thoughtful attention to the needs of the people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo?
    Country Club Management
  59. Leadership grid: Which management is from committed people; interdependence through a "common stake" in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect?
    Team Management
  60. Leadership grid: Which management is adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get work out while maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level?
    Middle of the Road Management
  61. Which theory is sometimes called least preferred coworker theory and describes effective leadership as a behavioral predisposition of the leader matched with a favorable situation?
    Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership
  62. What do contingency theories focus on?
    • Leadership characteristics
    • leadership behavior
    • specific situation
  63. What is Fiedler's Contingency model contribution?
    explains which kinds of managers are likely to be most effective in which situations
  64. If the description of LPC is neutral or positive then it results in __ LPC or ____ oriented.
    Hi LPC or relationship oriented
  65. If the description of LPC is negative then it results in ___LPC or ____ oriented.
    Lo LPC or task oriented
  66. What are the 3 situational characteristics of Fiedler's Contingency Theory?
    • Leader-member relations- represent the follower's trust and confidence in the leader
    • task structure- degree to which a task is well defined and clearly understood
    • position power- the power available to the leader to reward or punish the follower
  67. What are the 3 leader styles of Fiedler's Model?
    • Relationship oriented 
    • task oriented
    • measuring leader style
  68. A relationship oriented manager will do better in a ______situation where a task oriented manager will be most effective in _____or _____ situations.
    • moderately favorable situation
    • unfavorable or favorable situations
  69. A leadership theory in which the leader's role is twofold: 1. clarify the path by which followers can achieve personal goals and organizational outcomes and 2. increase the rewards valued by followers.
    path-goal leadership theory
  70. In House's Path-Goal Model effective leaders motivate subordinates to achieve goals by:
    • identifying desirable outcomes
    • rewarding desired behavior
    • clarifying paths to goal accomplishments
  71. What is the procedure to House's Path-Goal Model?
    • understand your subordinates
    • reward subordinates
    • structure their work/ work experiences
  72. What are the four types of Path-goal theory leader behaviors?
    • supportive leadership
    • directive leadership
    • participative leadership
    • achievement-oriented leadership
  73. Which path-goal classification of leader behaviors is:
    -leader behavior that shows concern for subordinates
    -open, friendly, and approachable
    -creates a team climate
    -treats subordinates as equals
    supportive leadership
  74. Which path-goal classification of leader behaviors is:
    -tells subordinates exactly what they are supposed to do
    -planning, making schedules, setting performance goals, and behavior standards
    directive leadership
  75. Which path-goal classification of leader behaviors is:
    -consults with his or her subordinates about decisions
    participative leadership
  76. Which path-goal classification of leader behaviors is:
    -sets clear and challenging goals for subordinates
    -behavior stresses high-quality performance
    achievement-oriented leadership
  77. Which leadership theory asserts that leaders can and should adjust their behavior to suit situations in the workplace?
    Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership theory
  78. Which leadership is task oriented and focuses on manipulating rewards?
    transactional leadership
  79. What are the characteristics of transformational leadership?
    • vision and charisma
    • framing and inspiration
    • intellectual stimulation
    • developmental consideration
    • impression management
  80. What is something that acts in place of the influence of a leader and makes leadership unnecessary?
    Leadership substitute
  81. What is an inspirational form of leader behavior that is based on modifying followers' beliefs, values, and ultimately their behavior?
    transformational leadership
Card Set
MBA 502 Final Quiz
Motivation and Leadership