Sociology midterm

  1. anything that stands for something else and has a particular meaning for people who share a culture
  2. the tangible objects that members of a society make, use and share
    material culture
  3. the shared set of meanings that people in a society use to interpret and understand the world.
    nonmaterial culture
  4. Characteristics of culture. Culture is....
    • -Learned
    • -Transmitted from one generation to the next
    • -Shared
    • -Adaptive and always changing
  5. a system o f shared symbols that enables people to communicated with one another
  6. The standards by which members of a particular culture define what is good or bad, moral or immoral, proper or improper, desirable or undesirable, beautiful or ugly.
  7. a society's specific rules concerning right and wrong behavior
  8. Norms that members of a society (or a group within a society) see as not being critical for society's survival and that, consequently, are not severely punished when violated
  9. Characteristics of Norms. Norms are...
    • -unwritten
    • -instrumental
    • -explicit
    • -change
    • -conditional
    • -rigid
  10. Norms that members of a society consider very important because they maintain moral and ethical behavior
  11. the lifelong process of social interaction in which the individual acquires a social identity and ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that are essential for effective participation in a society.
  12. The process of learning cultural behaviors and expectations so deeply that we accept them without question.
  13. A theoretical perspective that applies biological principles to explain the behavior of animals, including human beings.
  14. The process of learning a role that does not yet apply.
    Anticipatory Socialization
  15. The individuals, groups, or institutions that teach us what is needed to know to participate effectively in society.
    Agents of socializations
  16. The process by which we act toward and react to people around us
    Social Interaction
  17. An organized pattern of bahavior that governs people's relationships
    social structure
  18. A social position that a person occupies in a society
  19. a collection of social statuses that a person occupies at a given time
    status set
  20. a social position that a person is born into
    ascribed status
  21. a social position that a person attains through personal effort or assumes voluntarily.
    achieved status
  22. An ascribed or achieved status that determines a person's identity.
    master status
  23. the behavior expected of a person who has a particular status
  24. the different roles attached to a single status
    role set
  25. the frustrations and uncertainties a person experiences when confronted with the requirements of two or more statuses.
    role conflict
  26. the stress that arises from incompatible demands among roles within a single status
    role strain
  27. two or more people who interact with one another and who share a common identity and a sense of belonging.
    social group
  28. a relatively small group of ppl who engage in intimate face-to-face interaction over an extended period
    primary group
  29. a large, usaully formal, impersonal and temporary collection of ppl who pursue a specific goal or activity.
    secondary group
  30. a group of ppl who shape our behavior, values, and attitudes
    reference group
  31. A tendency of in-group members to fonform without critically testing which results in narrow view of issue
  32. a web of social ties that links an individual to others
    social netork
  33. formal organization that is designed to accomplish goals and tasks through efforts of a large number of ppl in the most efficient and rational way possible
Card Set
Sociology midterm
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